Homeworks academic service


Footnotes and endnotes in a research paper

Sources used more than once Chapter 8 focuses exclusively on standard examples on writing Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA format. Before learning how to properly write Footnotes and Endnotes, it is necessary to develop a foundational comprehension of MLA citation style. This particular method of documentation is widely used in English literature, educational studies, gender studies, humanities and other cultural studies.

Example of MLA Citation: Namely, does the material being cited have multiple authors? Or, was it taken from a website or a journal? Is it a source within a source?

These are all elements that must be considered in order to determine which variation of the MLA format should be utilized. What are Footnotes and Endnotes? It is necessary to use MLA Endnotes and Footnotes each time sources from any material are used either in full or in part, in order to give credit to the original source.

These citations are intended to guide readers to the correct pages in the Bibliography, Reference or Works Cited sections. A footnote is an ancillary note added to the end of a page.

What are Footnotes and Endnotes?

Footnotes provide commentary or cite references on a specific portion of the text found in the body paragraphs of a paper. For example, if a writer decides to add an important fact or wants to comment on something stated in the paper, but that remark is irrelevant to the topic or thesis, they may decide to add a footnote. Typically, this would involve using an imbedded symbol to serve as a placeholder for the footnote at the conclusion of the sentence they are adding commentary for and then reprinting the symbol and their remark in the footnote.

The primary difference between a Footnote and an Endnote is the Footnotes are used numerically at the bottom of the page where the reference or commentary is made, whereas the Endnotes are listed numerically at the end of the essay, on a separate page titled Endnotes. If you are mentioning a source for the first time, it is necessary to include a whole and complete Foot or Endnote.

The practice of adding Endnotes or Footnotes is fairly fluid for almost every time of text, the exception being online media such as blogs and websites.

Given that technology is continually moving forward, formal processes for the citation of online texts have not yet been standardized. However, it is a common belief amongst experts that adding Footnotes to a website will help to enhance credibility and allow readers to reference original sources. The method used for including a website Footnote is as follows: Navigate to footnotes and endnotes in a research paper website that is being used as the originating source If possible, find the name of the author of the webpage.

Type the name of the webpage, the date it was published online, the URL of the website and the date that the page was visited. Record the information in due order, using commas. Information relating to MLA style as presented here has been based mainly on this authoritative publication from the Modern Language Association of America.

New York, MLA, 2003.

Chapter 8. First Footnotes and Endnotes – Examples in MLA Style

Book with one author or editor: Book with two authors or editors: Hogg and Michael G. CCH Canadian, 2001 969: Book with three or more authors or editors: Health Communications, 1998 68. Germany 1998 New York: Book with no author or editor stated: Book that has been translated: The Diary of a Young Girl, trans.

Article in a collection by several authors, with one or more editors: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life, ed. Indiana UP, 1995 118. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated: Article from an encyclopedia with one author: Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with no author stated: Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with one or more authors: Pamphlet, with no author stated: Chevy Trucks General Motors of Canada, 2000.

Merck Frosst Canada, 2002. Book, movie, film, product or software review: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan Ottawa: Film or video recording: First date shall be a Web page creation or modification date. Second date shall be the date you accessed the Web page. If the Web page does not have a modification or creation date, leave it out, but always indicate your access date just before the URL. In-text Footnotes or Endnotes may be added in an essay for a single Shakespearean play: Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts: