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Mla handbook for writers of research paper

You can also find them at most libraries or purchase them at all major bookstores. Always ask your Mentor which style to use before you begin your paper. The MLA style is used in some areas of the humanities, e. Other humanities disciplines such as history, philosophy, and religion may require other styles for formatting your papers.

  • Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and systematically gained knowledge;
  • Skip two spaces, then list the title;
  • Once you become familiar with the core elements that should be included in each entry in the Works Cited list, you will be able to create documentation for almost any type of source;
  • Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students.

Basic MLA Facts Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Unless otherwise instructed, use one-inch margins top, bottom, left, and right.

Use a Works Cited page for reference to parenthetical citations. Number pages in the upper right hand corner of the page. Use present tense to introduce cited or quoted material and to make personal comments on such materials. Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in past tense or when reporting historical events.

As Winkleman states in the novel Diary of a Madman, "I was never ignorant" 293. Winkleman's purpose in Diary of a Madman is to point out the innate imperfection of humans. Moore created Winkleman not only to use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the author could express his own opinions.

To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a Works Cited page. Always cite direct quotations see below. If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, don't simply rearrange the words. Instead, make sure to use your own style of writing and language, and use an in-text citation to acknowledge the source.

Then, list on the Works Cited page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. In-text Citations First Appearance Cite the first appearance of or reference to another person's words or ideas by introducing the quotation, paraphrase, or citation with the author's full name exactly as it appears in the source, but exclude titles such as Mr.

Be sure to include the page number s on which the cited material can be found. You may also choose to include the title of mla handbook for writers of research paper cited text in the first reference. Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, to write good fiction, authors of short fiction must master grammar and punctuation 17. After the first appearance, use only the author's last name within the text of your writing; you do not need to restate the name of the text.

Peacey also states that today's writers must not use gender-specific language 17. Authors Name Not Used in Text If you don't use the author's name in the text, place only the last name within the parenthetical citation with the page number.

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition

In the parenthetical citation, don't use "p. Although many consider Lovejoy's collection titled My Art: The Stories the perfect model for writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as "pretentious, trashy, and inane" Peacey 333. More Than One Author If a cited source has more than one author, either include all names in the parenthetical citation according to how they are listed in the source, or list the first author followed by et.

Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories Newman, Banya, Benis, and Cramer 814. In the following example of what not to do, there is no clear distinction between the student's words and ideas and the cited author's words and ideas.

Trent Lovejoy uses a variety of avian symbolism in his fiction.

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Eagles stand for self-deterministic freedom. Ravens signify the mysterious. Vultures symbolize either death or opportunism. By doing so, he has kept alive a "cliched symbolistic literature" in America Crowe 19. In comparison, the following passage clearly delineates words and ideas, and the reader of this passage can see that the student borrowed both a direct quotation and ideas from Crowe's book, For the Birds. In For the Birds, James Crowe explains that Trent Lovejoy uses avian symbols to represent peace, freedom, mystery, death, and opportunism.

In doing so, Crowe argues that Lovejoy has managed to keep alive the tradition of "cliched symbolistic literature" for America 189.

MLA handbook for writers of research papers.

If you are citing an author who has been quoted in another book or article, use the original author's name in the text and the author of the source in which you found the quotation in the parenthetical citation. It is far more important for authors to ". Quotation Lengths Less than four typed lines of any direct quotation are placed within quotation marks. Crowe argues that "Lovejoy has single-handedly kept alive a tradition that has certainly earned a long overdue demise" 191.

More than four typed lines of any direct quotation must be indented. From the left margin, indent one inch on a computer or ten spaces on a typewriter.

Double space the quotation, and don't use quotation marks. Insert a parenthetical citation two spaces after the last punctuation mark of the quotation. Peacey states that many authors of contemporary short fiction have not mastered the commonly accepted set of prescriptive rules by which standard American English is defined. She argues that such a lack of proficiency is detrimental to these authors' works and may well be damaging to the language as a whole.

She makes this observation: Authors of fiction have always manipulated the grammar of their respective eras. Whether writing in dialect to validate certain characters or stylistically misusing a language, fictionists have routinely broken grammatical rules.

  1. Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories Newman, Banya, Benis, and Cramer 814. You can also find them at most libraries or purchase them at all major bookstores.
  2. If your paper cites only one of the volumes, give the volume number before the city and publisher and give the total number of volumes in the work after the date.
  3. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach.
  4. Government Publication Bush, George. For such sources, use the abbreviation "par.
  5. The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works. Edition Other Than the First If you are citing an edition other than the first, include the number of the edition after the title.

However, the misuse of language by contemporary writers is more often the result of ignorance of grammar than it is of creative design. For a variety of reasons, not the least of which is academic political correctness, many contemporary American authors simply do not know a grammar that delineates the language in which they write. Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and systematically gained knowledge.

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For two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each additional paragraph another quarter inch or three typed spaces beyond the original one inch or ten space indentation. Two or More Works by the Same Author If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, include the title of the work either in the signal phrase or in abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference.

  1. The name of the imprint usually precedes the publisher's name on the title page.
  2. Translation List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator.
  3. Francophone Cultures and Literatures Ser. Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in past tense or when reporting historical events.

In his article "California and the West," reporter T. The title of an article from a periodical should be put in quotation marks, as in the examples. The title of a book should be underlined or italicized. When both the author and a short title must be given in parentheses, the citation should appear as follows: The mountain lion population has been encroaching on human territory in California since 1972, when voters passed a law that banned hunting of the animal Miller, "Cougars" 1.

The Author Is Unknown If the author is not given, either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in the parentheses. In California, fish and game officials estimate that since 1972 lion numbers have increased from 2,400 to at least 6,000 "Lion" A21. Authors With the Same Last Name If your list of works cited includes works by two or more authors with the same last name, include the first name of the author you are citing in the signal phrase or parenthetical reference.

At least 66,665 lions were killed between 1907 and 1978 in Canada and the United States Kevin Hansen 58.

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A Novel, a Play, or a Poem In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to find the passage in various editions of the work. For a novel, put the page number first and then, if possible, indicate the part or chapter in which the passage can be found. Fitzgerald's narrator captures Gatsby in a moment of isolation: For a verse play, list the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods.

Use Arabic numerals unless your instructor prefers Roman numerals.

  • How to Raise a Moral Child;
  • The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works;
  • In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elements , and information about the source is kept to the basics;
  • On Writing Short Fiction;
  • A Collection of Brief Creative Nonfiction;
  • Date of Internet publication.

In his famous advice to the players, Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, ". For a poem, cite the part if there are a number of parts and the line numbers, separated by periods. When Homer's Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men ". The Bible If the book of the Bible that you are citing does not appear in the signal phrase, include it in parentheses along with the chapter and verse numbers.

Consider the words of Solomon: If it is relevant, you may also include the version of the Bible you are citing: Two or More Works To cite more than one source to document a particular point, separate the citations with a semicolon. The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams30.

Multiple citations can be distracting to readers, however, so the techniques should not be overused. If you want to alert readers to several sources that discuss a particular topic, consider using an information note instead.

  • However, underline the title if the work was originally published as a book;
  • When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so 00;
  • When there is no author but there is an editor, alphabetize by the editor's last name;
  • As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion;
  • Books by two or more authors -- list authors as they are listed in the book;
  • The Stories the perfect model for writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as "pretentious, trashy, and inane" Peacey 333.

A Work without Page Numbers You may omit the page number if a work has no page numbers. Some electronic sources use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. For such sources, use the abbreviation "par. An Electronic Source To cite an electronic source in the text of your paper, follow the same rules as for print sources. If the source has an author and there is a page number, provide both.

Using historical writings about leprosy as an example, Demaitre argues that ".

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

Electronic sources often lack page numbers. If the source uses some other numbering system, such as paragraphs or sections, specify them, using an abbreviation "par. Otherwise, use no number at all.

A clip of the film Demolition d'un mur demonstrates that "cinema is all about transformation, not mere movement" Routt, sec. Volti writes, "As with all significant innovations, the history of the automobile shows that technological advance is fueled by more than economic calculation.

MLA Handbook

If the electronic source has no known author, either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in parentheses.

Use of Ellipsis Points When you omit a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph from a quoted passage, you must use ellipsis points, or three spaced periods, to indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original.

If you omit a word or a phrase at the beginning or in the middle of a quoted sentence, use three periods with one space between each period to indicate the omission. Moore states that ". Use four ellipsis points to indicate the omission of an entire sentence within a quotation. Peacey claims that ". It is the author's duty to be aware of the language's grammatical conventions as well as to be knowledgeable of its linguistic history" 7.