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Mla style footnotes citations in a research paper

Prior to learning how to write proper Footnote and Endnote citations, it is essential to first develop a stronger understanding of the MLA format.

This specific type of documentation method is most commonly used in the English or other language literature, cultural studies, and gender studies and humanities fields.

MLA guidelines dictate a number of parameters for in-text citation. For example, if the main paragraphs of your essay include reference to work written by someone other than yourself, you must acknowledge the quote or reference, in parenthesis, and follow this up with the surname of the original author and the page number indicting where the reference can be found in the originating source.

Keep in mind that there are a number of things to consider when using the MLA format for sources that are not your own. More specifically, does the original material have two or more authors? Or, does the source come from a journal or a website? Or maybe even a block quote. Each of these things will necessitate a specific variation of the MLA style be followed. Each and every source utilized in your paper must appear in the bibliography — no exceptions.

Adhere to these guidelines when creating your bibliography The bibliography should always appear on a separate page.

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The page will be numbered, in sequential order, according to the pages contained in the essay. On occasion, if the list is shorter in length, it may be reasonable to include the bibliography on the final page of the essay. However, the general rule of thumb is to use a separate page.

Remember that a proper MLA heading should always appear in the centre of a page. There is no need to use bold or italic font or to underline the title. The entire bibliography should be double spaced or 1. Unlike other documentation styles, MLA format citations examples and bibliography texts should reference the authors surnames in alphabetical order.

In cases where the surname of the author is not known, it is appropriate to list titles mla style footnotes citations in a research paper. When more than one work, written by the same author, is to be cited, they should be alphabetized by title and the name of the author included in the initial entry. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section. What is a footnote: They are used to offer commentary or cite references on a specific part of text in the body of the paper.

For example, should an author wish to include an interesting fact or comment about one of the statements made in the paper, but that comment is seemingly irrelevant to the argument being presented, they may choose to include that information in a footnote.

In this scenario, they would embed a symbol as a placeholder for the footnote at the end of the sentence being commented on and reprint the symbol and their commentary in the footnote. The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made, while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes. If you are still using a typewriter, a superscript number is typed half a space above the line after the last word of the citation, e.

To type a Footnote citation, the same superscript number is put at the beginning of the Footnote at the bottom of the same page where the citation occurs. When mentioning a work for the first time, a full and complete Footnote or Endnote entry must be made.

The process for including Footnotes or Endnotes in fairly consistent for most types of texts, however, what about including footnotes on virtual media like websites and blogs?

How to Footnote a Website Technology is ever changing, and as such, the process for standardizing citation on websites has not yet been formalized. However, many thought leaders believe that the inclusion of website footnotes will not only lend credibility to the site, but also allow readers to utilize originating sources in order to gather additional information. Creating a website footnote is not difficult. Visit the website for which the footnote is being created.

Locate if possible the name of the web page author. Write down the name of the website, the date the information was published online, the site URL and the date that you visited the page.

Sample Footnotes in MLA Style

List the recorded information in order, using commas. Only one sentence is used in a Footnote or Endnote citation, i. In a Bibliography, each citation consists of a minimum of three statements or sentences, hence each entry requires a minimum of three periods, e.

Wayne Miller, King of Hearts: Gibaldi 313 does NOT recommend the use of these old-fashioned abbreviations: More commonly, author and page number or numbers are now used instead of ibid. For second or later mention of the same work with intervening entries, where previously op.

Leave one space between the superscript number and the entry. Do not indent second and subsequent lines.

MLA Footnotes. How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style

Number Footnotes and Endnotes consecutively using a superscript, e. For Endnotes, you must use the same superscript number as in your text at the beginning of each Endnote in your Endnotes list. Start your list of Endnotes on a new page at the end of your essay. Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts: An interesting reference was made to the picking of corn on the Sabbath.

  1. Navigate to the end of the sentence where the footnote will go.
  2. The corresponding number appears outside of the sentence.
  3. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed.