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Parts of a research paper with definition

Top of Page Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected2 typical size weight, length, etc3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used.

  • The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture;
  • The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results , without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures;
  • Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information;
  • The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand.

For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? Describe the site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date s of the study e.

Location data must be as precise as possible: When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: It is often a good idea to include a map labeled as a Figure showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area.

Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area.

Study Guides and Strategies

For laboratory studies you need not report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility. Most often it is not. If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility.

Top of Page Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls, treatments, variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured, what form the data take, etc.

Parts of Research Paper: Definition and Guidelines

Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.

  • The results of the germination experiment Fig;
  • When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site;
  • In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods;
  • Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text usually parenthetically or in the relevant Tables or Figures in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure;
  • This section expands on the research question you hope to answer in your study;
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A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc.

  1. Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc.
  2. If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility.
  3. To achieve a successful research paper writing there is a need to define, recognize and apply the parts of research paper expertly to obtain the best out of your writing assignment. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area.

When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures e. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category e.

Review the Literature

It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source vendor and catalog number for reagents used, e. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method.

Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure slikely you can combine them and be more concise.

  • What was your line of reasoning?
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Of course you did, because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses usually hypothesis tests were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance.

The information should include: For example, "A Paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to the glider's wings.

Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action; this results in very lengthy, wordy passages.

A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability: This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details.

The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr.

Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information.

The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Avoid using ambiguous terms to identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood.

Designators such as Tube 1, Tube 2, or Site 1 and Site 2 are completely meaningless out of context and difficult to follow in context. In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods.

Tube 4's A600 was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Notice how the substitution in red of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context.

Parts of a research paper with definition A600 of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key resultswithout interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures. The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed.

Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text usually parenthetically or in the relevant Tables or Figures in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively.

The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the parts of a research paper with definition tense.

Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. Consider the following two examples: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages Fig. In contrast, this example strays subtly into interpretation by referring to optimality a conceptual model and tieing the observed result to that idea: The results of the germination experiment Fig.