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People of the ethical treatment of animals peta and their position in animal rights

Given the exacting processing requirements where capsule shells have to run smoothly on the same commercial filling machines as the gelatin capsules and the drug delivery requirements of capsule shells, it has been hard to find cost-effective alternatives to gelatin capsule shells.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Despite these difficulties, there are now a range of gelatin alternatives readily available on the market, but these products were not easy to develop. All major suppliers of capsules now produce HPMC capsules. HPMC is a cellulose ether of vegetable origin, which eliminates concerns with religious restrictions and dietary preferences against animal products.

Like gelatin, HPMC has a long-use history in the pharmaceutical industry for things such as a wet granulation binder, layering binder, controlled-release matrix former, film coating material, and suspending agent. It has an excellent safety profile, is considered GRAS generally regarded as safeand is listed in all the major pharmacopoeias. This reduces problems with brittleness due to loss of water because water does not plasticize HPMC as much as it does gelatin, and a lower water activity level generally is good for moisture-sensitive drug stability.

  1. Description and Teaching Materials Students will be given opportunities to learn about the historical views of the relationship between humans and animals, current views, and in particular the role of animals in biomedical research. Almost all of us grew up eating meat, wearing leather, and going to circuses and zoos.
  2. Animal rights activist admits to university bombing 25 years later. For whatever reason, you are now asking the question.
  3. She coordinated the first arrest in U.
  4. Because these new innovations are not as widely available as HPMC, they will not be discussed further, but they have been reviewed by Stegemann.

There are also differences in water and oxygen permeability, which is important for drug stability. HPMC capsules are made by the same dipping process as gelatin. Currently, this film can be formed either by thermal gelation or gelling via a gelling system.

  • Constitution which prohibits slavery [46] and sued to have a macaque declared the legal holder of a copyright;
  • Each group's summary should be typed, 2 - 3 pages, and can be used during the Town Council;
  • Should animals be used in biomedical or other kinds of scientific research?

Unlike gelatin, HPMC undergoes reverse thermal gelation; in other words, HPMC forms a gel at higher temperatures, whereas gelatin forms a gel at lower temperatures. For cellulose-based polymers such as HPMC, it is not unusual for them to be more soluble at lower temperatures, because at higher temperatures, the hydrophobic interactions predominate more than the hydrophilic interactions, and the hydrophobic interactions lead to aggregation between the polymer chains.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals | Animal Rights in Asia

As the number of aggregates goes up, the gelation occurs. This transition temperature can also be affected by environmental factors such as ionic strength. Thus, to make HPMC capsules on the same dipping pin system, the HPMC solution is kept cool at room temperature, and the pins are heated to above the gelation temperature. The hot pins are dipped into the cool HPMC solution, removed from the solution, spun on the pins to form a uniform film, and then dried, much like the gelatin capsule-making process.

  • These prepared responses should be typed, and represent in-depth thinking of all group members;
  • In that time, the animal liberation group has killed at least 36,000 dogs and cats;
  • A longtime radical animal liberation activist, she has led PETA since its foundation in 1980.

The disadvantage of thermal gelation using a cold HPMC solution and hot pins to make the capsules is that very expensive capsule-making equipment must be modified or developed to accommodate these differences in processing. Another approach is to add gelling agents to the HPMC solution, and these gelling agents have the property of being a solution at cold temperatures and a gel at higher temperatures.

Currently there are two commercial polymer gelling agents: Kappa-carrageenan is a structural polymer obtained from red seaweed. It is a sulfonated polysaccharide that is widely used in the food industry as a gelling and thickening agent, and it has an excellent safety profile.

  • Accessed October 11, 2017;
  • Because these new innovations are not as widely available as HPMC, they will not be discussed further, but they have been reviewed by Stegemann;
  • These prepared responses should be typed, and represent in-depth thinking of all group members;
  • Learning Goals Students should explore the questions;
  • Not only was there tighter legislation, but new industry standards were established by such circus alternatives as Cirque du Soleil, which did not use animal acts;
  • Gradually the organization began to appeal to industries—such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals , which traditionally used animals for extensive and invasive testing of their products—to discontinue animal testing in favor of cruelty-free alternatives.

Kappa-carrageenan has the unique feature that it forms helical structures at room temperature, and the gelation occurs via interactions between the helixes.

The other polymer used commercially as a gelling agent for capsule manufacturing is gellan gum. It is produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea. Gellan gum is a linear anionic polysaccharide that has one carboxyl side group and one 0-acetyl substituent per chemical repeat unit. The carboxylic group, which can ionize at the typical working pH of the polymer, makes the gelation temperature sensitive to environmental factors such as ionic strength.

A critical issue with capsule performance is how these three types of capsules compare to each other and with gelatin.

  1. This transition temperature can also be affected by environmental factors such as ionic strength.
  2. For whatever reason, you are now asking the question. Animal rights activist admits to university bombing 25 years later.
  3. She has a history of extremely controversial statements, including a 1994 letter to the late Palestinian terrorist leader Yasser Arafat imploring that he reduce animal collateral damage in his campaign against Israeli civilians.

The key properties such as water uptake, mechanical strength, color-hiding power, stability, esophageal transit time, in vitro dissolution, and in vivo bioequivalence of these different types of capsules have been extensively studied. These studies and others are hard to summarize because the results depend upon the type of drug and the test conditions used, but in general, they found that the performance was similar, but there were important differences between the different types of capsules shells.

Thus, without some type of evaluation, one cannot assume that the capsule shells types are interchangeable because there could be conditions where the differences could affect in vivo performance and patient outcomes. Currently, HPMC capsule shells have been developed to the point of being commercially available from all the major suppliers; however, in the future, there will be many new developments in capsules shells.

Because these new innovations are not as widely available as HPMC, they will not be discussed further, but they have been reviewed by Stegemann.