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Political changes gave birth to communism in russia

Militarily, imperial Russia was no match for modern, industrialized Germany. Russian participation in the war was disastrous: Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any other nation, and food and fuel shortages soon plagued the vast country.

Who Was Vladimir Lenin?

Lenin advocated for Russian defeat in World War I, arguing that it would hasten the political revolution he desired. Hoping that Lenin could further destabilize their foe, the Germans arranged for Lenin and other Russian revolutionaries living in exile in Europe to return to Russia. They transported Lenin in a sealed truck like a plague bacillus. Strikes over food shortages in March had forced the abdication of the inept Czar Nicholas IIending centuries of imperial rule.

  • These measures were responses to economic conditions beyond control;
  • A failed coup by communist hard-liners against Gorbachev in August 1991 discredited the CPSU and greatly hastened its decline;
  • Between 1922 and his death in 1924, Lenin suffered a series of strokes which compromised his ability to speak, let alone govern;
  • Khrushchev's attempts to improve the lives of ordinary citizens were often ineffective;
  • Mass unrest threatened the Soviet government.

Russia came under the command of a Provisional Government, which opposed violent social reform and continued Russian involvement in World War I. Lenin began plotting an overthrow of the Provisional Government. Peasants, workers, and soldiers demanded immediate change. Lenin, aware of the leadership vacuum plaguing Russia, decided to seize power.

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

He secretly organized factory workers, peasants, soldiers and sailors into Red Guards — a volunteer paramilitary force. Under war communism, Lenin quickly nationalized all manufacturing and industry throughout Soviet Russia.

Communism in Russia

He requisitioned surplus grain from peasant farmers to feed his Red Army. These measures proved disastrous.

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Under the new state-owned economy, both industrial and agricultural output plummeted. An estimated five million Russians died of famine in 1921, and living standards across Russia plunged into abject poverty.

  1. Vladimir Lenin , their leader, rose to power and governed between 1917 and 1924. Stalin was the undisputed dictator of the USSR.
  2. He secretly organized factory workers, peasants, soldiers and sailors into Red Guards — a volunteer paramilitary force. Washington refused to formally recognise the Soviet Union and its government; it would not do so until 1933.
  3. This progress came at an enormous human cost. In 1990 the CPSU voted to surrender its constitutionally guaranteed monopoly of power, thereby permitting opposition parties to flourish legally in the Soviet Union.
  4. Russia came under the command of a Provisional Government, which opposed violent social reform and continued Russian involvement in World War I. Though war communism lasted during the civil war, the war devastated Russian industry and emptied cities' populations in Moscow and Kiev.

Mass unrest threatened the Soviet government. As a result, Lenin instituted his New Economic Policy, a temporary retreat from the complete nationalization of War Communism.

Vladimir Lenin

As the economy deteriorated during the Russian Civil WarLenin used the Cheka to silence political opposition, both from his opponents and challengers within his own political party.

But these measures did not go unchallenged: Fanya Kaplan, a member of a rival socialist party, shot Lenin in the shoulder and neck as he was leaving a Moscow factory in August 1918, badly injuring him.

Lenin became the first head of the USSR, but by that time, his health was declining. Between 1922 and his death in 1924, Lenin suffered a series of strokes which compromised his ability to speak, let alone govern. By that time, Stalin already had come to power. About a million people braved the cold Russian winter to stand in line for hours before paying their respects to Lenin, who was lying in state at the House of Trade Unions in Moscow.