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Prevalence of antiseptic resistance genes in staphylococci

Discussion Staphylococcus aureus is a flexible pathogen, which has been known as a common cause of various community-acquired and nosocomial infections 18. The unnecessary use of disinfectants at hospitals results in the permanence of Staphylococcal isolates, as well as, the augmented prevalence of qac genes in such strains 20. In order to evaluate the MIC of Chlorhexidine, determine the presence of qac genes, and investigate the association between the presence of mecA gene and Chlorhexidine MIC, 60 isolates of S.

Therefore, our finding was in accordance with those of the above-mentioned studies. It is noteworthy that 2 33.

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As well as 1 12. The presence of smr gene had a strong relationship with the presence of mecA gene in S. Whereas the current antiseptic MICs related to qac gene positive Staphylococci will not allow survival at in-use concentrations, even moderately increased resistance may allow persistence when residual disinfectants are present 1622.

While hospital environments act as a source of qac genes, long-term care facilities and nurses may play a contributory role in the transmission of antiseptic-resistant Staphylococci between hospital sections and patients 24.

  1. Reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine in staphylococci. Abstract We assessed the prevalence of six biocide resistance genes among 82 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and 219 methicillin-susceptible S.
  2. Whereas the current antiseptic MICs related to qac gene positive Staphylococci will not allow survival at in-use concentrations, even moderately increased resistance may allow persistence when residual disinfectants are present 16 , 22.
  3. Our study demonstrated that the raised ratio of qac gene positive Staphylococci strains offers the co-selection of these genes due to the increased contact with MRSA-infected patients.
  4. Am J Infect Control.
  5. Isolations of Staphylococcus aureus were compared between ortho-k subjects and controls for all samples and for coagulase-negative staphylococci CNS from conjunctival sacs. A new anti-infective strategy to reduce the spreading of antibiotic resistance by the action on adhesion-mediated virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus.

Many studies have been performed in order to understand the incidence and possible genetic link of antiseptic and antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococci. Similar to the findings of other studies 2025in our study the existence of mecA gene in these isolates was related to the presence of qac genes.

Our study demonstrated that the raised ratio of qac gene positive Staphylococci strains offers the co-selection of these genes due to the increased contact with MRSA-infected patients. Decreased susceptibility to antiseptic Chlorhexidine could be associated with qac genes, which is also consistent with the reports of clinical isolates in above studies.

In another study by Miyazaki et al. In a study by Longtin et al. In Iran, a study by Hasanvand et al. On the other hand, the prevalence of antiseptic resistance genes in staphylococci gene in the same study was not detected in both MRSA and MSSA isolates while the frequency of the smr gene in this study was 17 33. The mecA gene is located on a mobile genomic island Staphylococcal cassette chromosome SCCwhich not only serves as a vehicle for the genetic exchange of genes among Staphylococci, but also as a carrier for virulence and additional drug-resistant genes 1730.

Genetic linkage between qac genes and mecA genes conferring resistance to methicillin on the same Staphylococcal plasmids has also been reported elsewhere 31. Application of antiseptics might be chosen for strains resistant to antibiotics and help them maintain in healthcare settings. These Staphylococci may be a hazard for infection control because of their persistence in places with low amounts of antiseptic residues. This study had limitations such as coordination problems in nasal swab sampling from staff and clinical specimens found in different units of hospitals.

The increase of antiseptic-resistant bacteria is one of the most significant problems and a serious threat to public health. Understanding the selection of gene transfer that causes the distribution of resistance genes is very important for long-term strategies in order to treat microbial diseases. Study concept and design: Roohollah Taghaddosi; acquisition of data: Maryam Safarpour Dehkordi; analysis and interpretation of data, Alireza Dehghan; administrative, technical, and material support: Abolfazl Gholipour; statistical analysis: Fatemeh Heibati; drafting of the manuscript: Mohammad Sadegh Damavandi; revising the manuscript: The authors of the present work declare no conflict of interests.

This study is a research project with grant number 1085 from deputy of research and technology of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences.

Biofilm formation and dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus under the influence of oxacillin.

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The impact of mgrA on progression of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. A low molecular weight component of serum inhibits biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Association of biofilm formation and methicillin-resistance with accessory gene regulator agr loci in Greek Staphylococcus aureus clones.

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: Am J Nurs Res. Increased mortality among elderly patients with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

Organization of the antiseptic resistance gene qacA and Tn552-related beta-lactamase genes in multidrug- resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains of animal and human origins. Reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine in staphylococci: Evaluation of reduced susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds and bisbiguanides in clinical isolates and laboratory-generated mutants of Staphylococcus aureus.

Biocide tolerance in bacteria.

  • Although qacAB has commonly been reported among MRSA isolates 1 , 3 , 24 , 25 , no direct relation was described between methicillin resistance and qacAB prevalence 26;
  • Whereas the current antiseptic MICs related to qac gene positive Staphylococci will not allow survival at in-use concentrations, even moderately increased resistance may allow persistence when residual disinfectants are present 16 , 22.

Int J Food Microbiol. Frequency of disinfectant resistance genes and genetic linkage with beta-lactamase transposon Tn552 among clinical staphylococci. A new anti-infective strategy to reduce the spreading of antibiotic resistance by the action on adhesion-mediated virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus.

Nasal colonization by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus in community skilled nursing facility patients. Am J Infect Control. The association between biocide tolerance and the presence or absence of qac genes among hospital-acquired and community-acquired MRSA isolates.

Distribution of antiseptic resistance genes qacA, qacB, and smr in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Toronto, Canada, from 2005 to 2009. Has decolonization played a central role in the decline in UK methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission?

  1. Biofilm formation and dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus under the influence of oxacillin. In a study by Longtin et al.
  2. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In Iran, a study by Hasanvand et al.
  3. Our study demonstrated that the raised ratio of qac gene positive Staphylococci strains offers the co-selection of these genes due to the increased contact with MRSA-infected patients. Antimicrobial resistance profiles, molecular characterizations, and information on the presence of virulence determinants were available for all isolates 21 , 22.
  4. In order to obtain the highest degree of clonal variability, convenience samples of 82 MRSA and 219 methicillin-susceptible S. Similar to the findings of other studies 20 , 25 , in our study the existence of mecA gene in these isolates was related to the presence of qac genes.

A focus on evidence from intensive care. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among hospital employees: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. Development of bacterial resistance to several biocides and effects on antibiotic susceptibility.