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Qualitative and quantitative research on fear of crime rape

Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice. Early researchers focused on operationalization and conceptualization of fear of crime, specifically focusing on what fear of crime was and was not and how to best tap into the fear of crime construct. This research also found that while crime rates had been declining, fear of crime rates had stayed relatively stable.

This finding led researchers to study the paradox of fear of crime.

  1. The early literature noted that four problems were associated with the fear of crime measure Lane et al. This reciprocal relationship has not been explored in much detail, in part because most data collected for fear of crime studies are cross sectional and do not allow researchers to truly test this relationship.
  2. Many studies have established that people in high poverty neighborhoods who qualitative data pertinent to voucher programs, neighborhood crime and residential apply for mto, and that this fear was greatly reduced among families that contrasts with previous quantitative surveys of residents, in which only a small. As discussed earlier, fear of crime is an emotion at its core, and so, it makes sense that this emotion may also go hand and hand with another emotion, namely, anxiety.
  3. Liska and colleagues 1988 did indeed find that constrained behaviors and fear of crime were reciprocal, with a feedback loop occurring between these two concepts. Additionally, fear of crime researchers have tried to determine the best way to define and measure fear of crime, the most likely predictors of fear of crime at both the individual and contextual level , and the consequences of fear of crime.

In other words, why does fear of crime not match up with actual chances of victimization? Several explanations were put forth including a focus on vulnerability e.

Thus, many studies began to consider the predictors of fear of crime. Researchers since this time have spent most time studying these fear of crime predictors including individual level predictors i. Such results have provided guidance on what individuals fear, why they fear, and what impact it has on the daily lives of Americans.

Future research will continue to focus on groups little is known about, such as Hispanics, and also on the impact of behavior on fear of crime. This future research will likely also benefit from new techniques in survey research that analyzes longitudinal data to determine causality between fear of crime and other predictors such as risk and behavior.

Fear of victimizationperceived riskconstrained behaviorsperceptions about victimization The Relationship between Crime and Fear of Crime The relationship between crime and fear of crime is not intuitive. One would imagine that if crime was high, fear of crime would be as well, and alternatively, if crime was low, fear of crime would follow this pattern.

What has been found over the years, however, is that crime and fear of crime rarely match up. In fact, while crime in the United States has been declining for the past 20 years, fear of crime has stayed relatively constant. For example, when examining the Bureau of Justice Statistics information from 1980 to 2013, persons arrested for murder and nonnegligent manslaughter dropped from 20,000 individuals in 1980 to about 12,000 in 2013.

This pattern also holds for rape 32,000 arrested in 1980, in comparison to 17,000 in 2013 and for stolen property 120,000 arrested in 1980 compared to 100,000 in 2013. Since crime rates have been declining, it would make sense that fear of crime rates would also show declining patterns over time.

However, this is not the case. In fact, the rate of those who said they were afraid to walk in their neighborhood has stayed qualitative and quantitative research on fear of crime rape stable.

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In 1980, approximately 40 percent of respondents said they were afraid to walk alone at night while in 2013, approximately 37 percent said they were afraid to walk in their neighborhood at night Dugan, 2014.

Thus, while crime rates have been declining over time, fear of crime rates have stayed relatively stable. Because of this finding, much research has been conducted on the fear of crime in an effort to understand why fear of crime rates and crime rates do not always match up. Additionally, fear of crime researchers have tried to determine the best way to define and measure fear of crime, the most likely predictors of fear of crime at both the individual and contextual leveland the consequences of fear of crime.

Defining Fear of Crime Through the years, researchers have struggled with the best way to conceptualize and define fear of crime, debating whether fear of crime should be conceptualized as an emotion or as a measure of risk.

These concepts are related but distinct in the fear of crime literature. For example, the likelihood of risk one believes one has of becoming a victim i. Additionally, some researchers early on suggested that behavior may also be related to fear of crime.

Thus, researchers have noted that emotion fear of crimelikelihood of risk perceived riskand precautionary behaviors constrained behaviors may work together but that generally speaking, perceived risk and constrained behaviors predict fear of crime Mesch, 2000a ; Rader, 2004 ; Rader et al. A couple of studies have questioned this position. Liska and colleagues 1988 argued that constrained behaviors may be both a cause and a consequence of fear of crime.

For example, fear of crime may cause someone to install a security system. However, owning a security system and pushing the on or off button may make the system owners more afraid of crime because they are now thinking about crime more often.

Liska and colleagues 1988 did indeed find that constrained qualitative and quantitative research on fear of crime rape and fear of crime were reciprocal, with a feedback loop occurring between these two concepts. This reciprocal relationship has not been explored in much detail, in part because most data qualitative and quantitative research on fear of crime rape for fear of crime studies are cross sectional and do not allow researchers to truly test this relationship.

In other words, individuals manage the threat of victimization not only with emotion fear of crime but also with cognition perceived risk and behavior constrained behaviors. So, the focus on fear of crime as the most important element may not be the best way to define the threat of victimization. Rader and colleagues 2007 tested this theoretical model and found that while fear of crime was important in determining the threat of victimization, analyzing perceived risk and constrained behaviors as outcomes yielded much information about the larger threat of victimization concept.

Measuring Fear of Crime Fear of crime has been measured in a variety of ways. This measure is often used in a variety of secondary data sources such as the National Crime Survey and the General Social Survey.

Historically, much of the early research focused on the best way to both define and measure fear of crime. The early literature noted that four problems were associated with the fear of crime measure Lane et al.

First, as stated above, many studies were viewed as tapping into the wrong construct.

These early measures some later studies have used these measures this as well asked respondents how safe they felt instead of how worried they were about crimes happening to them.

Thus, from the 1980s onward, researchers argued that fear of crime measures needed to ask about worry instead of safety. Early research as well as some later research used crime as a generalized indicator i. This measurement was viewed as flawed because it lacked specificity as to the type of crime one might think of when answering this question. Respondents might be thinking of murder, rape, theft, or burglary.

Fear of Crime

This finding indicates that examining crime-specific fear is important for future research. Thus, measures of fear of crime qualitative and quantitative research on fear of crime rape to be location specific. Finally, some research suggested that fear of crime questions needed to measure intensity. Early studies asked respondents if they were afraid of crime either were or were not rather than giving respondents the ability to answer the question on a scale of intensity.

Thus, when taking all of these early discussions concerning fear of crime into consideration and some recent additions, the best measurement of fear of crime should tap into the concept of worry i. Individual Predictors of Fear of Crime Sex There are several predictors of fear of crime at the individual level. Women are less likely to be the victim of a crime and yet are more likely to say they are afraid of crime; in contrast, men are more likely to be the victim of crime and yet are less likely to say they are afraid of crime Ferraro, 1996 ; C.

This well-established finding has been around for some time and has led researchers to ask why Hale, 1996 ; Young, 1992. Why is it that there is a paradox between victimization chances and fear of crime for both men and women?

First, a leading explanation in the literature involves vulnerability. The idea is that women feel afraid of crime because they feel more vulnerable to crime, even if this is not the case. Sometimes this vulnerability is based solely on physical size women feel smaller than potential male attackersand sometimes it is based on other social vulnerability factors such as the location of where someone lives.

A second prominent explanation involves the potential for sexual assault. Women may believe that all crimes may end in sexual assault e. Another explanation that ties into both vulnerability and the shadow of sexual assault hypothesis involves gender socialization. Women are socialized to believe that they need protection from others, that they are likely to be victimized by a stranger, and that the public space is dangerous for them. These socialization messages normalize fear of crime in the daily lives of women.

While most fear of crime research has focused on explaining why women fear crime, several studies have also focused on why men do not fear it. Thus, while men may very well be afraid of crime, they rarely express this fear Gilchrist qualitative and quantitative research on fear of crime rape al. This socialization practice has also taught men about the situational nature of fear of crime. Socialization practices have taught men that it is acceptable for them to fear when they are in strange places or do not believe they can take on a group of men or others.

Other than these situational factors, most studies have found that men do not acknowledge fear of crime Day et al.

One final explanation of the gender-fear of crime paradox involves the hidden nature of victimization. Age has been studied in the fear of crime literature for quite some time. Early research indicated that older people were much more afraid of crime than younger people. Older people, though less likely to be victims of crime, felt they were vulnerable to crime because of their changing health and body conditions.

  1. However, this is not the case. Because of this finding, much research has been conducted on the fear of crime in an effort to understand why fear of crime rates and crime rates do not always match up.
  2. Rader and colleagues 2007 tested this theoretical model and found that while fear of crime was important in determining the threat of victimization, analyzing perceived risk and constrained behaviors as outcomes yielded much information about the larger threat of victimization concept. Social class is also a focus of study in the fear of crime literature.
  3. Thus, researchers have noted that emotion fear of crime , likelihood of risk perceived risk , and precautionary behaviors constrained behaviors may work together but that generally speaking, perceived risk and constrained behaviors predict fear of crime Mesch, 2000a ; Rader, 2004 ; Rader et al. This measurement was viewed as flawed because it lacked specificity as to the type of crime one might think of when answering this question.

More recent research has also found that older men feel more vulnerable to victimization as well Beaulieu et al. More recent research has additionally found that younger people may feel more vulnerable to victimization and thus fear crime at higher levels than originally expected.

With these more recent findings, the age and fear of crime relationship has become more complex, so that most would argue today that this relationship is curvilinear. Whereas age has been the focus of many studies since the 1970s, fewer studies have focused on race and particularly ethnicity and fear of crime Lane et al. These studies have not produced consistent results, but generally speaking, they suggest that nonwhites are more afraid of crime than whites.

The primary reason for this fear is based on the vulnerability minorities experience in their social location. A few studies have also found that whites are more afraid than nonwhites. One particular group that has become the focus of newer research strains are Hispanics.

Qualitative and quantitative research on fear of crime rape

Additional fear of crime research focuses not so much on which group fears crime but which group is feared by others. This research suggests that the racial composition of a place is important in determining fear of crime.

All in all, this is a blossoming area of study in the fear of crime literature and one that needs additional research. Social class is also a focus of study in the fear of crime literature.

This is based on the social and physical vulnerability experienced by poorer individuals. These individuals may live in neighborhoods where crime is more likely, and so they may be more susceptible to victimization. They may also be physically vulnerable since they may not be able to protect themselves from potential victimization Pantazis, 2000 ; Scarborough et al. As an example, those who are poor may have to take public transportation, may not be able to take precautionary measures such as installing extra locks, bars, or security systemsand may not be able to vary their routine activities to reduce potential victimization.

Other Factors that Predict Fear of Crime A few other factors are sometimes associated with fear of crime, including marital status, parenting status, educational attainment, and previous victimization.

Those who are married are often less afraid of crime than their single counterparts Scarborough et al.

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Additionally, parents are more fearful than nonparents, especially when considering fear of crime for their children. In terms of education, although little research has been conducted on this topic, research has found that those who are more educated are less fearful of crime. However, this has gender effects as well, with educated women reporting more fear of crime than educated males Schafer et al.

Further research has focused on the role of vicarious victimization. Contextual Predictors of Fear of Crime In addition to individual predictors of fear of crime, the literature has also focused on contextual factors that predict fear of crime—namely, how living conditions and the characteristics of a neighborhood context influence fear of crime.

For example, neighborhoods that are racially heterogeneous may increase fear of crime levels, so that if individuals live in more diverse neighborhoods, they may feel more afraid of their neighbors, which may induce fear. Thus, racial heterogeneity may explain fear of crime among residents in neighborhoods Katz et al.