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Research paper on child abuse in pakistan

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Magnitude and Factors Associated with Child Abuse in a Mega City of Developing Country Pakistan

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective Child abuse is one of the major challenges for health care providers.

Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care clinics affiliated with a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan between March to December 2010.

  • Above factors indicate the importance of detecting and preventing child abuse;
  • It is important that this problem is not just acknowledged, but also explored in terms of its magnitude and impact, and national-level data inform policies and strategies for prevention and control;
  • J Postgrad Med Inst.

Mothers with children aged between 6 and 12 years were included in the study. A total of 412 mothers were recruited through consecutive sampling and written informed consent was taken. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to seek information about child abuse. Findings Of the total 412 mothers, final analysis was conducted on 379 mothers. Conclusion The prevention of child abuse can be achieved through comprehensive, multifaceted and integrated approaches requiring joint efforts by the government, policy makers, stake holders, social workers, educationists, and public health practitioners.

It affects children from all social, racial and religious groups. The spectrum of the extent of the problem thus ranges from fatal to non-fatal abuse which includes physical, sexual, emotional and psychological abuse and neglect. Consequences of child abuse and aggressive home environment are overwhelmingly disturbing due to the devastating short and long term adverse effects on the physical, mental and social well-being of children[ 23 ].

The prevalence of child abuse and neglect is difficult to measure since events tend to be un-reported. About 40 million children under the age of 14 years are estimated to suffer from abuse and neglect around the world[ 4 ]. Various population based surveys and cross sectional studies around the world have reported a very high proportion of children experiencing some form of physical maltreatment attributed to parental punishment or domestic violence[ 5 ].

Unfortunately, there is little evidence available on this issue from South Asia. In a study on street children from India, 36. Research conducted in Sri Lanka and Afghanistan also indicated high incidence of abuse in children [ 7 ].

Violence against Children: A Challenge for Public Health in Pakistan

Similar results are also documented in a recent study conducted in schools of three major cities of Pakistan[ 8 ]. There can be variety of reasons for inflicting abuse on children. Many models and theories have been developed to assess the probable causes of such behavior.

  • These primary clinics were chosen to obtain a diverse sample representing various socio-economic strata and cultural patterns;
  • Dimensions of household neglect, such as improper supervision, abandonment, and educational deprivation, have not been elaborated in the reviewed papers;
  • The state of world's children 2003 http;
  • Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage;
  • Newspaper reports as a source for injury data in developing countries;
  • The time periods of reporting also vary, and methodological details are often not available in the papers.

One such model is environmental stress theory model which proposes that the child abuse results from social and environmental stress[ 9 ].

Stressful life conditions and home environment, including poverty, unemployment, lower educational status, nuclear family structure, are prominent factors of this model[ 9 ]. There is evidence that stressful home environment is significantly associated with child abuse[ 101112 ]. Results of several studies revealed that witnessing and experiencing domestic violence is a major predictor of aggressive behavior in children[ 1011 ].

The impact of witnessing violence in childhood extrapolates into adulthood with exhibition of hostile behavior publicly and towards spouse, thus giving rise to a perpetual cycle of violence and aggression[ 13 ].

  1. Three organizations reported national data, and two focused on statistics from Punjab province and Lahore city. The confluence of macro risk factors, such as poverty, poor legal protections, and illiteracy, together with family specific factors, such as large size and unemployment, create an enabling environment for violence against children.
  2. This represents a hostile macro context, which leads to an increased risk of violence against children rape, human trafficking, and sexual exploitation.
  3. The interviewers were specially taught to be neutral and not to share their personal feelings.
  4. Most work was of observational and descriptive nature with data collected through survey methods and interviews with small sample sizes.
  5. The concept of post-event care and victim support for child victims barely exists in Pakistan. Non-governmental organizations have initiated limited support services in some urban parts of the country but there are no data to determine either their accessibility or their effectiveness.

Above factors indicate the importance of detecting and preventing child abuse. As there is limited information and awareness in Pakistan regarding this issue, we aimed to identify the magnitude of child abuse physical and emotional and the factors associated with it.

INTRODUCTION

In this study we have only focused on the physical and emotional abuse, due to the sensitivity of the issue as the responders may not be comfortable giving information regarding sexual abuse etc. Subjects and Methods Design and Setting This study was a cross-sectional study, conducted in primary care clinics affiliated with a tertiary care hospital in Karachi during March 2010 to December 2010.

The study hospital has state of the art primary care unit, which also offers off-site medical services at different locations in the city of Karachi. These primary clinics were chosen to obtain a diverse sample representing various socio-economic strata and cultural patterns.

Since patients visiting the primary clinics are un-booked therefore sampling frame could not be obtained and convenience sampling was employed. Sampling and Enrollment Sample size was calculated through WHO software for sample size determination. Mothers with children aged between 6 and 12 years were eligible to be part of the study. Those mothers suffering from any acute illness like chest pain, acute abdominal pain, or high grade fever etc were excluded.

The time required to complete the questionnaire was about 25 to 30 minutes.

  • Most studies and reports have documented child labour, child sexual abuse, and fatal violence, whereas neglect or other non-physical forms of violence have not been captured;
  • As there is limited information and awareness in Pakistan regarding this issue, we aimed to identify the magnitude of child abuse physical and emotional and the factors associated with it;
  • Over half of the responding mothers had received no or minimal schooling;
  • Child labour in India;
  • Prof Med J Pak;
  • Sexual exploitation and abuse of children in Pakistan http:

The questions were listed from an extensive Medline search and opinion generated through consensus development technique by investigators of the study. In this study we have only focused on physical abuse. Moreover, to identify the factors we used some components of environmental stress model due to the sensitivity of the subject. The factors included in the questionnaire were age, gender of child, family structure, educational status of parents and stressful environment at home.

The study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Research Ethics Committee.

Data Collection Four female medical students were trained for data collection. Only female students were selected because of the sensitive issue of violence and moreover in our socio-cultural context females are more comfortable to express their views openly with the same gender female.

The interviewers were specially taught to be neutral and not to share their personal feelings. Due to the sensitivity of the issue, the interviews were conducted with each participant in separate rooms ensuring full privacy.

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Moreover, personal identifiers were removed. The proportion of abused children reported by their mothers and other variables of interest proportion of abuse, age, gender, educational status of parents, stressful home environment etc. The independent association of studied factors with child abuse was calculated by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

The factors included in the multivariable model were age, gender of child, educational status of parents, family structure and stressful home environment. Findings Of the 412 consented participants, data of 379 mothers was analyzed while remaining 33questionnaires were excluded due to incomplete information.

In all, about 25. Over half of the responding mothers had received no or minimal schooling. Over one-third of the participating mothers reported having been abused by their husbands and 27. Almost one third of the mothers 32. Over one quarter of children 25.