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Research papers on ceasar augustus the first emperor of rome

He was only 18 when, against the advice of his stepfather and others, he decided to take up this perilous inheritance and proceeded to Rome. The Senate, encouraged by Cicero, broke with Antony, called upon Octavius for aid granting him the rank of senator in spite of his youthand joined the campaign of Mutina Modena against Antony, who was compelled to withdraw to Gaul. Today, however, he is habitually described as Octavian until the date when he assumed the designation Augustus.

On November 27, 43 bce, the three men were formally given a five-year dictatorial appointment as triumvirs for the reconstitution of the state the Second Triumvirate —the first having been the informal compact between Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar.

The east was occupied by Brutus and Cassius, but the triumvirs divided the west among themselves.

History: Ancient/ Augustus Caesar term paper 19240

These ties of kinship did not deter Sextus, after the Perusine War, from making overtures to Antony; but Antony rejected them and reached a fresh understanding with Octavian at the treaty of Brundisium, under the terms of which Octavian was to have the whole west except for Africa, which Lepidus was allowed to keep and Italy, which, though supposedly neutral ground, was in fact controlled by Octavian.

The peoples of the empire were overjoyed by the treaty, which seemed to promise an end to so many years of civil war. In 38 bce Octavian formed a significant new link with the aristocracy by his marriage to Livia Drusilla.

But a reconciliation with Sextus Pompeius proved abortive, and Octavian was soon plunged into serious warfare against him. Antony handed over the ships, but Octavian never sent the troops.

The treaty also provided for renewal of the Second Triumvirate for five years, until the end of 33 bce. Military successes In the following year the balance of power began to change: His deliberate rivalry with Antony for the eventual mastership of the Roman world became increasingly apparent.

With the help of Agrippa, he also lavished large sums on the adornment of Rome. In 32 bce the triumvirate had officially ended, and Octavian, unlike Antony, professed no longer to be employing its powers.

  • Vincent Bridges was a husband, magickian, friend, mentor, scholar and world traveler who died way too early These are his collected works Maintained by the Fifth;
  • At the same time, he was granted a 10-year tenure of an area of government provincia comprising Spain , Gaul , and Syria , the three regions containing the bulk of the army.

Each leader induced the populations under his control to swear formal oaths of allegiance to his own cause. Then, in spite of grave discontent aroused by his exactions in Italy, Octavian declared war—not against Antony but against Cleopatra. At the Battle of ActiumAntony tried to extricate his ships in the hope of continuing the fight elsewhere. Though Cleopatra and then Antony succeeded in getting away, only a quarter of their fleet was able to follow them.

Cleopatra and Antony fled to Egypt and committed suicide when Octavian captured the country in the following year. National Maritime Museum, London. From this point on, by a long and gradual series of tentative, patient measures, he established the Roman principate, a system of government that enabled him to maintain, in all essentials, absolute control. Gradually reducing his 60 legions to 28, he retained approximately 150,000 legionaries, mostly Italian, and supplemented them by about the same number of auxiliaries drawn from the provinces.

A permanent bodyguard the Praetoriansbased on the bodyguards maintained by earlier generals, was stationed partly in Rome and partly in other Italian towns. A superb network of roads was created to maintain internal order and facilitate trade, and an efficient fleet was organized to police the Mediterranean.

In 28 bce Octavian and Agrippa held a census of the civil populationthe first of three during the reign.

  1. Besides these vast powers he held also the important rights of a tribune...
  2. Once again he refuses, stating that he wants people to worship his ideas instead.
  3. An invasion of Bohemia was planned and had already been launched from two directions when news came in 6 that Pannonia and Illyricum had revolted.
  4. In 27 BC, with more of theatrical gesture than sincerity, Octavian placed the republic at the disposal of the Senate and the Roman people.
  5. He also received the right to intervene in those provinces administered by the Senate.

They also reduced the Senate from about 1,000 to 800 later 600 compliant members, and Octavian was appointed its president. Government and administration Remembering, however, that Caesar had been assassinated because of his resort to naked power, Octavian realized that the governing class would welcome him as the terminator of civil war only if he concealed his autocracy beneath provisions avowedly harking back to republican traditions.

At the same time, he was granted a 10-year tenure of an area of government provincia comprising SpainGauland Syriathe three regions containing the bulk of the army. The remaining provinces were to be governed by proconsuls appointed by the Senate in the old republican fashion.

The word augustus was often contrasted with humanus; its adoption as the title representing the new order cleverly indicated, in an extraconstitutional fashion, his superiority over the rest of mankind.

  1. The family tree became more complicated after Augustus had his stepson Tiberius briefly marry his daughter, and then adopted Tiberius outright as son and successor in A.
  2. These were also partly responsible for his patriotic, antiquarian attachment to the ancient religion and for his puritanical social policy. Adultery is absolutely forbidden.
  3. The absence of bronze token coinage, which had been sparse for many decades, was remedied by the creation of abundant mintages in yellow orichalcum and red copper.
  4. Military successes In the following year the balance of power began to change. There were also indirect taxes, which as in the past were farmed out to contractors because their yield was unpredictable and the embryonic civil service lacked the resources to handle them.

With the aid of writers such as VirgilLivyand Horaceall of whom in their different ways shared the same ideas, he showed his patriotic veneration of the old Italian faith by reviving many of its ceremonials and repairing numerous temples. Military operations continued in many frontier areas.

In 25 bce recalcitrant Alpine tribes were reduced, and Galatia central Asia Minor was annexed. Mauretaniaon the other hand, was transferred from Roman provincial status to that of a client kingdom, for such dependent monarchiesas in the later republic, bore a considerable part of the burden of imperial defense.

Augustus himself visited Gaul and directed part of a campaign in Spain until his health gave out; in 23 bce he fell ill again and seemed on the point of death. Feeling, amid reports of conspiraciesthat new constitutional steps were necessary, he proceeded to terminate his series of consulships in favour of a power imperium majus that was separated altogether from office and its practical inconveniences.

He was also awarded the power of a tribune tribunicia potestas for life. Earlier he had accepted certain privileges of a tribune. The full power he now assumed carried with it practical advantages, notably the right to convene the Senate.

  • Octavian strengths, accomplishments, and feats as a military leader;
  • With the aid of writers such as Virgil , Livy , and Horace , all of whom in their different ways shared the same ideas, he showed his patriotic veneration of the old Italian faith by reviving many of its ceremonials and repairing numerous temples;
  • The system was based on the central treasury aerarium , but the details of its relationship with the treasuries of the provinces , and particularly the provincia of Augustus, are still imperfectly understood, partly because, although the emperor proudly recorded his gifts to the central treasury, he did not report what funds passed in the opposite direction;
  • There were also indirect taxes, which as in the past were farmed out to contractors because their yield was unpredictable and the embryonic civil service lacked the resources to handle them;
  • Military operations continued in many frontier areas.

This was, perhaps, needed all the more because Augustus himself—while admittedly supporting the interests of poorer people by a great extension of the right of judicial appeal—tended to back the established classes as the keystone of his system.

Meanwhile Augustus himself traveled in SicilyGreeceand Asia 22—19. In 19 bce Agrippa completed the subjugation of Spain. In 17 there were resplendent celebrations of ancient ritual, known as the Secular Gamesto purify the Roman people of their past sins and provide full religious inauguration of the new age.

Although the principate was not an office which could be automatically handed on, Augustus seemed to be indicating his views regarding his ultimate successor when he adopted the two sons of his daughter Julia, boys aged three and one, who were henceforward known as Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar.

Proceeding across the Alpsthey annexed Noricum and Raetiacomprising large parts of what are now SwitzerlandAustriaand Bavariaand extended the imperial frontier from Italy to the upper Danube 16—15 bce. It was probably during these years that an executive, or drafting, committee consilium of the Senate was established in order to help Augustus to prepare senatorial business.

His administrative burden was also lightened by the expansion of his own staff knights, who could also now rise to a number of key posts, and freedmen to form the beginnings of a civil servicewhich had never existed before but was destined to become an essential feature of the imperial system.

Gradually, too, a completely reformed administrative structure of RomeItalyand the whole empire was evolved. The financial system that made this possible was evidently far more effective than anything the empire research papers on ceasar augustus the first emperor of rome ever seen until then. The system was based on the central treasury aerariumbut the details of its relationship with the treasuries of the provincesand particularly the provincia of Augustus, are still imperfectly understood, partly because, although the emperor proudly recorded his gifts to the central treasury, he did not report what funds passed in the opposite direction.

The taxation providing these resources apparently included two main direct taxes: There were also indirect taxes, which as in the past were farmed out to contractors because their yield was unpredictable and the embryonic civil service lacked the resources to handle them.

The republican customs dues continued; but the rates were low enough not to hamper trade, which, in the peaceful conditions created by Augustus, flourished in wholly unprecedented fashion. Industries did not exist on a very large scale, but commerce was greatly stimulated by a sweeping reform and expansion of the Roman coinage. Gold and silver pieces, their designs reflecting many facets of imperial publicity, were issued in great quantities at a number of widely distributed mints.

The Rome mint was reopened for this purpose about 20 bce. The absence of bronze token coinage, which had been sparse for many decades, was remedied by the creation of abundant mintages in yellow orichalcum and red copper. In the west the principal mint for these pieces, besides Rome, was Lugdunum Lyonwhose coins displayed a view of the Altar of Rome and Augustus that formed a model for other provincial capitals.

The Roman citizen colonies of the west, many of them established by Augustus to settle his veterans, supplemented this output by their own local coinages, and in the east, particularly Asia Minor and Syria, numerous Greek cities were also allowed to issue small change.

Expansion of the empire The death in 12 bce of Lepidus enabled Augustus finally to succeed him as the official head of the Roman religionthe chief priest pontifex maximus. In the same year, Agrippa, too, died. Augustus compelled his widow, Julia, to marry Tiberius against both their wishes. During the next three years, however, Tiberius was away in the field, reducing Pannonia up to the middle Danubewhile his brother Drusus crossed the Rhine frontier and invaded Germany as far as the Elbe, where he died in 9 bce.

  • His surviving letters show kindliness to his relations;
  • At least two hundred and fifty thousand men in army at all times;
  • An invasion of Bohemia was planned and had already been launched from two directions when news came in 6 that Pannonia and Illyricum had revolted;
  • Given military command for ten years;
  • His teeth were wide apart, small and ill-kept; his hair was slightly curly and inclining to golden; his eyebrows met;
  • Augustus was a cultured man, the author of a number of works all lost:

In the following year, Augustus lost another of his intimatesMaecenaswho had been the adviser of his early days and was an outstanding patron of letters. Roman EmpireThe extent of the Roman Empire in 117 ce.

But shortly afterward he went into retirement on the island of Rhodes. Gaius was sent to the east and Lucius to the west. Both, however, soon died. Tiberius returned home in 2, and in 4 Augustus adopted him as his son, who in turn was required to adopt Germanicusthe son of his brother Drusus. An invasion of Bohemia was planned and had already been launched from two directions when news came in 6 that Pannonia and Illyricum had revolted.

It took three years for the rebellion to be put down; and this had only just been completed when Arminius raised the Germans against their Roman governor Varus and destroyed him and his three legions. As Augustus could not readily replace the troops, the annexation of western Germany and Bohemia was postponed indefinitely; Tiberius and Germanicus were sent to consolidate the Rhine frontier. Although Augustus was now feeling his age, these years in association with Tiberius were marked by administrative innovations: When, in the same year, the powers of Augustus were renewed for 10 years—such renewals had been granted at intervals throughout the reign—Tiberius was made his equal in every constitutional respect.

The best-preserved copy of the latter document is on the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at AnkaraTurkey the Monumentum Ancyranum. In 14 ce Tiberius was due to leave for Illyricum but was recalled by the news that Augustus was gravely ill. He died on August 19, and on September 17 the Senate enrolled him among the gods of the Roman state.

Agrippa Postumuswho had been named his coheir but was later banished, was put to death. The order to kill him may already have been given by Augustus, but this is not certain. AtilimGunesBaydin Personality and achievement Augustus was one of the great administrative geniuses of history.

The gigantic work of reorganization that he carried out in every field of Roman life and throughout the entire empire not only transformed the decaying republic into a new, monarchic regime with many centuries of life ahead of it but also created a durable Roman peacebased on easy communications and flourishing trade.

It was this Pax Romana that ensured the survival and eventual transmission of the classical heritage, Greek and Roman alike, and provided the means for the diffusion of Judaism and Christianity. Although his regime was an autocracy, Augustus, being a tactful and imaginative master of propaganda of many kinds, knew how to cloak that autocracy in traditionalist forms that would satisfy a war-worn generation—perhaps, most of all, the upper bourgeoisie immediately below the leading nobility, since it was they who benefited from the new order more than anyone.

He was also able to win the approbationthrough the patronage of Maecenasof some of the greatest writers the world has ever known, including VirgilHoraceand Livy. AugustusAugustus, statue in Rome.

This was in contrast to the views of Antony and Cleopatra, who had envisaged some sort of Greco-Roman partnership such as began to prevail only three or four centuries later. These were also partly responsible for his patriotic, antiquarian attachment to the ancient religion and for his puritanical social policy. Augustus was a cultured man, the author of a number of works all lost: The conventional view of his character distinguishes between his cruelty in early years and his mildness in later life.

But there was not so much need for cruelty later on, and, when it was needed notably in the suppression of alleged plotshe was still ready to apply it. It is probable that nothing short of this degree of political ruthlessness could have achieved such enormous results.

His domestic life, however, was simple and homespun. Within his family, the successive deaths of those he had earmarked as his successors or helpers caused him much sadness and disappointment. His devotion to his wife Livia Drusilla remained constant, though, like other Romans, he was unfaithful.

His surviving letters show kindliness to his relations. Yet he exiled his research papers on ceasar augustus the first emperor of rome Julia for offending against his public moral attitudes, and he exiled her daughter by Agrippa for the same reason; he also exiled the son of Agrippa and Julia, Agrippa Postumus, though the suspicion that he later had him killed is unproved.

He needed them because the burden was so heavy, and he especially needed them in the military sphere because he was not a great commander.

In Agrippa and Tiberius and a number of others, he had men who supplied this deficiency, and although, on his deathbed, he is said to have advised against the further expansion of the empire, he himself, with their assistance, had expanded its frontiers in many directions.