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The canadian herald world war ii newspaper

Last Edited October 24, 2017 Independent newspapers were first established in Canada between about 1800 and 1850. During that period, printing presses became less expensive to establish and operate, and literacy rates and an appetite for news and views developed. Since publishers were less dependent on government subsidy than before, they were free to question and criticize the powers that be. As a result, an independent but not impartial journalism developed.

From the mid-1800s to the early 1900s, newspapers became more profitable as populations and commerce expanded and reader and advertising revenues grew. During this time, mainstream newspapers represented the interests of political parties and cultural groups.

Calgary Herald fonds

This entry is part of a series on the history of the newspaper industry in Canada. See also First Newspapers in Canada. Independent and Partisan Newspapers: Weekly newspapers sprouted up, allied with political movements and cultural groups, as well as various mercantile and agricultural interests.

At the same time, cheaper and more efficient presses brought more printers into the business. To make money, they published almanacsbooks and pamphlets for various clients. As reader appetites for news increased, newspapers proliferated.

Front page of Le Canadien, November 22, 1806, vol. First edition of the Quebec Mercury, published Saturday 5 January 1805. He established the weekly in order to argue the cause of the Reform movement in general and farmers in particular against the dominant professional and mercantile groups in Upper Canada see Family Compact.

Previous Next In the Maritimesnewspapers such as the Novascotian established 1824 also challenged the authority of colonial oligarchies — especially under the the canadian herald world war ii newspaper of political reformer Joseph Howea leading proponent of responsible government see Joseph Howe: Tribune of Nova Scotia.

Front page of The British Colonist from 11 December 1858. As printing presses and materials became more affordable, more printers were able to establish independent printing houses. A number of these presses published newspapers that reflected the needs, interests, politics and languages of specific communities. Published from Sandwich, Canada West now WindsorOntariothe paper was used to communicate with supporters of the Underground Railroad.

Its subscribers were located in both Canada and the United States, and the paper provided useful information for Black people settling in Canada. When its first edition was printed in Sandwich on 24 March 1853, Shadd became the first Black woman in North America to publish a newspaper and one of the first female journalists in Canada. The paper merged with or acquired four other papers between 1904 and 1909 and was a source of foreign and domestic news as well as advice for new and settled German Canadians.

It was the last German-language newspaper in Ontario before a federal order-in-council banned the publication of German newspapers in 1918 see First World War. Most items were written in Japanese and covered a range of subjects relevant to Japanese immigrants in British Columbia. In 1941, the federal government shut down Japanese-language newspapers see Internment of Japanese Canadians. The longest-running Chinese community newspaper in Canada 1914—1992its coverage was local and foreign.

Newspapers, Politics and the State: These papers were by no means simple tools of the parties they claimed to support but more organs of specific leaders or factions within those parties.

The Manitoba Free Pressfounded by W.

Luxton in 1872, displayed a distinct Liberal preference from its earliest days. It was purchased in 1898 by Clifford Siftona prominent Liberal politician and Cabinet minister, and thereafter was the organ of the Liberal Party on the Prairies. First edition of the Manitoba Free Press, published 7 December 1872.

It was not unusual for an organ to deviate from the party line. The Toronto Mail, for example, broke with the Macdonald Conservatives in the 1880s, forcing the party to set up the Empire in 1887. The relative independence of newspapers from political parties and governments varied from place to place.

But in general, newspapers had more potential for independence from parties as their revenues from circulation and advertising grew. While they may not have been tools of the parties, newspapers the canadian herald world war ii newspaper closely tied to political factions well into the 20th century. The Toronto Starestablished by striking printers with trade union backing in 1892, was reorganized in 1899 by a business consortium anxious to obtain an organ for the new Liberal prime ministerSir Wilfrid Laurier.

During the first decade of the 20th century, the Calgary Herald used the organizational apparatus of the Alberta Conservative Party to sell subscriptions. In part, the politicization of newspapers continued because readers demanded partisanship. Politics was a serious matter in 19th century Canada, and newspapers were expected to have views.

Thus began the phenomenon of the two-newspaper town. By 1870, every town large enough to support one newspaper supported two — typically, one Liberal and one Conservative. Furthermore, newspapers never cut themselves off completely from government patronage. From 1867, the federal government subsidized newspaper publishers by granting them special postal rates see Postal System.

The relationship between Canadian newspapers and the state has also had a darker side. Early publishers who were considered overly critical of government actions could and did find themselves in jail see Joseph Howe: Tribune of Nova Scotiaand libel laws were used to silence bothersome editors see Law and the Press. In the 20th century, state action was aimed primarily at left-wing newspapers.

The Communist Party of Canada found itself proscribed and its publications banned at various times. Limited censorship was imposed by the federal government in 1970 following the kidnapping of two men during the October Crisis.

The Rise of Advertising While partisanship remained, the financial dependence of newspapers on governments and political parties declined throughout the 19th century. The reason was related to the economics of newspaper publishing and to overall economic development.

Newspapers faced high overhead costs, i. In the 1860s, when daily circulations were usually under 5,000, these overhead costs were covered by political party patronage. But as population expanded and literacy increased, publishers were able to spread these overhead costs over more readers.

With productive capacity increasing in all industriesadvertising, as a means of persuading people to buy the massive volume of goods being produced, became crucial see Industrialization in Canada.

Early advertisers were wholesalers trying to catch the attention of other merchants. But by the 1890s, retail advertising, aimed at a mass market, was dominant, and big-city dailies earned just a third of their revenues from subscribers and single-copy sales.

By 1900, consumers were flooded with newspaper advertisements enticing them to purchase such things as soap, patent medicines or electric belts.

Technological Developments Technological developments in the newspaper industry hastened the trend to large-circulation, advertising -based newspapers.

Newspapers in Canada: 1800s–1900s

By the 1880s, high-speed rotary or web presses, which printed on rolls of paper, and stereotyping allowed newspapers to expand their circulations in order to earn more revenue to cover these costs. A stereotype is a type of printing plate that duplicates entire pages of a newspaper, including both type and illustrations.

The more common use of the term, meaning an oversimplified impression of a person or group of people, is a metaphor of the printing term. Typecasting is a mechanical printing process in which individual letters are cast in a mould and arranged to form words, sentences and paragraphs.

The term is also used to describe a person who is considered to fit a stereotype, or an actor who is repeatedly assigned roles as the same type of person. In 1876, the combined circulation of daily newspapers in the nine major urban centres was 113,000.

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Seven years later, it had more than doubled. Railway building, from the mid-19th century onward, put more of the population within reach of daily and weekly newspapers. By the 1890s, typecasting machines such as the linotype allowed daily newspapers to expand their size from the standard 4- 8- or 12-page format to 32 or 48 pages see Print Industry.

This greatly increased the amount of advertising space available. At the same time, the development of newsprint manufactured from wood pulp provided a cheap source of supply to newspapers see Pulp and Paper Industry. The first photograph published in Canadian daily newspapers was a halftone photo engraving of Liberal Party leader Wilfrid Laurier in the Saturday Globe on 28 March 1891.

However, photographs were difficult and expensive to reproduce in newsprint and were therefore seen rarely and only in major dailies. They did not become a commonplace feature in Canadian newspapers for some time.

Though it lasted only two issues, its printer used the same press to print The British Colonist, which began publication on 11 December 1858. The canadian herald world war ii newspaper paper was edited by Amor de Cosmos. First edition of The Nor'-Wester newspaper, published 28 December 1859.

First edition of The New Nation newspaper, published 7 January 1870. First edition of The Edmonton Bulletin newspaper, published 13 December 1880. Front page of the Saskatchewan Herald from 25 August 1878.

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Daily Newspapers and Evening Editions Early newspapers were predominantly weeklies, although a few might be published two or three times a week. Population growth, increased literacy and urbanization hastened the transformation from weekly to daily journalism. In 1873, there were 47 dailies in Canada; by 1900, the country boasted 112. This increased competition among papers to print breaking news first. Depending on the time of the event, news could either be printed in the morning or evening edition of a paper, and many papers added second editions to their publishing schedule in order to compete — often at a discount rate.

  • This greatly increased the amount of advertising space available;
  • The longest-running Chinese community newspaper in Canada 1914—1992 , its coverage was local and foreign;
  • By 1870, every town large enough to support one newspaper supported two — typically, one Liberal and one Conservative.

Both the Globe and the Mail added evening and morning editions, for example. Some publishers gave their second papers other names, as was the case with the evening edition of the Halifax Herald, called the Mail, and the evening edition of the Chronicle, called the Echo. The older, established papers also increased circulation to attract new classes of readers.

In Toronto in 1872, each family bought, on average, one newspaper; by 1883, the average Toronto family purchased two newspapers each day. Kit Coleman was one of Canada's first women journalists courtesy Globe and Mail.

In 1916, Emily Murphy was appointed police magistrate for Edmonton, the first woman magistrate in the British Empire. Previous Next Though fewer than 60 women were identified as journalists in the 1901 censuswomen journalists were on the ascendancy.

  • Front page of the Saskatchewan Herald from 25 August 1878;
  • Readership surveys and advertising analyses;
  • M-1622-5 City of Calgary Gas Enquiry proceedings;
  • Thus began the phenomenon of the two-newspaper town.