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The cause effects and treatment of type 2 diabetes

Insulin Pumps Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose blood sugareither because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria frequent urinationthey will become increasingly thirsty polydipsia and hungry polyphagia. Fast facts on diabetes Here are some key points about diabetes.

More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels. In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes Williams textbook of endocrinology.

Type 1 Diabetes - the body does not produce insulin. Type 2 Diabetes - the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Gestational Diabetes - this type affects females during pregnancy.

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The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urinationintense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatiguecuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunctionnumbness and tingling in hands and feet. If you have Type 1 and follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life. Type 2 patients need to eat healthily, be physically active, and test their blood glucose.

As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly.

Diabetes: its types, causes and effect

As smoking might have a serious effect on cardiovascular health, diabetics should stop smoking. Hypoglycemia - low blood glucose - can have a bad effect on the patient. Hyperglycemia - when blood glucose is too high - can also have a bad effect on the patient. This information hub offers detailed but easy-to-follow information about diabetes.

Should you be interested in the latest scientific research on diabetes, please see our diabetes news section. There are three types of diabetes: Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years. Type 1 diabetes is nowhere near as common as type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life.

They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet. Link to article More information on type 1 diabetes is available in our type 1 diabetes page.

Measuring the glucose level in blood Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels.

The cause effects and treatment of type 2 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease - it gradually gets worse - and the patient will probably end up have to take insulin, usually in tablet form. Overweight and obese people have a much higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those with a healthy body weight. People with a lot of visceral fat, also known as central obesity, belly fat, or abdominal obesity, are especially at risk.

Being overweight, physically inactive and eating the wrong foods all contribute to our risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The scientists believe that the impact of sugary soft drinks on diabetes risk may be a direct one, rather than simply an influence on body weight. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is also greater as we get older.

Experts are not completely sure why, but say that as we age we tend to put on weight and become less physically active. Men whose testosterone levels are low have been found to have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Researchers the cause effects and treatment of type 2 diabetes the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, say that low testosterone levels are linked to insulin resistance.

Link to article For more information on how type 1 and type 2 diabetes compare, see our article: More information on type 1 diabetes is available in our type 2 diabetes page. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.

Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made during pregnancy. The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can raise the risk of complications during childbirth. Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Harvard University found that women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in cholesterol and animal fats.

Link to article Diabetes symptoms See the next page of our article for a full list of possible diabetes symptoms. The vast majority of patients with type 2 diabetes initially had prediabetes. Their blood glucose levels where higher than normal, but not high enough to merit a diabetes diagnosis.

The cells in the body are becoming resistant to insulin.

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Studies have indicated that even at the prediabetes stage, some damage to the circulatory system and the heart may already have occurred. Diabetes is a metabolism disorder Diabetes diabetes mellitus is classed as a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to the way our bodies use digested food for energy and growth. Most of what we eat is broken down into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood - it is the principal source of fuel for our bodies. When our food is digested, the glucose makes its way into our bloodstream.

Our cells use the glucose for energy and growth. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas.

A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated hyperglycemia. This is because the body either does not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin, or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produces. This results in too much glucose building up in the blood. This excess blood glucose eventually passes out of the body in urine.

So, even though the blood has plenty of glucose, the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirements. How to determine whether you have diabetes, prediabetes or neither Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways - there are three possible tests: The A1C test - at least 6. Diabetes comes from Greek, and it means a "siphon". Aretus the Cappadocian, a Greek physician during the second century A.

He described patients who were passing too much water polyuria - like a siphon.

Diabetes: Symptoms, causes, and treatments

The word became "diabetes" from the English adoption of the Medieval Latin diabetes. In 1675, Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means "honey"; the urine and blood of people with diabetes has excess glucose, and glucose is sweet like honey.

Diabetes mellitus could literally mean "siphoning off sweet water". In ancient China people observed that ants would be attracted to some people's urine, because it was sweet.

The term "Sweet Urine Disease" was coined. Controlling diabetes - treatment is effective and important All types of diabetes are treatable. Diabetes type 1 lasts a lifetime, there is no known cure.

Type 2 usually lasts a lifetime, however, some people have managed to get rid of their symptoms without medication, through a combination of exercise, diet and body weight control. Special diets can help sufferers of type 2 diabetes control the condition. Researchers from the Mayo Clinic Arizona in Scottsdale showed that gastric bypass surgery can reverse type 2 diabetes in a high proportion of patients. This suggests that early surgical intervention in the obese, diabetic population will improve the durability of remission of Type 2 diabetes.

Patients with Type 2 diabetes are usually treated with tablets, exercise and a special diet, but sometimes insulin injections are also required. If diabetes is not adequately controlled the patient has a significantly higher risk of developing complications. Complications linked to badly controlled diabetes: Below is a list of possible complications that can be caused by badly controlled diabetes: Eye complications - glaucomacataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and some others.

The cause effects and treatment of type 2 diabetes complications - neuropathy, ulcers, and sometimes gangrene which may require that the foot be amputated Skin complications - people with diabetes are more susceptible to skin infections and skin disorders Heart problems - such as ischemic heart disease, when the blood supply to the heart muscle is diminished Hypertension - common in people with diabetes, which can raise the risk of kidney disease, eye problems, heart attack and stroke Mental health - uncontrolled diabetes raises the risk of suffering from depression, anxiety and some other mental disorders Hearing loss - diabetes patients have a higher risk of developing hearing problems Gum disease - there is a much higher prevalence of gum disease among diabetes patients Gastroparesis - the muscles of the stomach stop working properly Ketoacidosis - a combination of ketosis and acidosis; accumulation of ketone bodies and acidity in the blood.

Neuropathy - diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage which can lead to several different problems. HHNS Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome - blood glucose levels shoot up too high, and there are no ketones present in the blood or urine. It is an emergency condition. Nephropathy - uncontrolled blood pressure can lead to kidney disease PAD peripheral arterial disease - symptoms may include pain in the leg, tingling and sometimes problems walking properly Stroke - if blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood glucose levels are not controlled, the risk of stroke increases significantly Erectile dysfunction - male impotence.

Infections - people with badly controlled diabetes are much more susceptible to infections Healing of wounds - cuts and lesions take much longer to heal.