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The differences between the italians and the jews who immigrated from europe to america

Who traveled to America?

History of Italian Immigration

The laborers were mostly agricultural and did not have much experience in industry such as mining and textiles. The laborers who did work in industry had come from textile factories in Piedmont and Tuscany and mines in Umbria and Sicily. Though the majority of Italian immigrants were laborers, a small population of craftsmen also immigrated to the United States.

Most of these emigrants came from Northern Italy, but more came per capita from the South. Due to the large numbers of Italian immigrants, Italians became a vital component of the organized labor supply in America.

  1. Irish urban centres, especially Dublin and Belfast, contributed little by way of emigrants.
  2. However, one-third of the population remained unskilled.
  3. Despite the differential they experienced in wages and social mobility because they were female, young immigrant women reveled in the freedom that wage-earning work conferred.
  4. Columbus, Ohio, 1840—1975 1979.

They comprised a large segment of the following three labor forces: In fact, Italians were the largest immigrant population to work in the mines. In 1910, 20,000 Italians were employed in mills in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. An interesting feature of Italian immigrants to the United States between 1901 and 1920 was the high percentage that returned to Italy after they had earned money in the United States.

For, the newly arrived immigrants found a padrone, a boss and middleman between the immigrants and American employers. The padrone was an immigrant from Italy who had been living in America for a while. He was useful for immigrants because he provided lodging, handled savings, and found work for the immigrants. All in all, he helped American employers by organizing a supply of labor.

American workers feared the new machinery introduced to multiple industries, therefore they held strikes and the Italians filled their jobs as scabs.

  1. The availability of higher wages in America compared to Ireland, as reported by family members and friends through letters and remittances sent from abroad, tempted many young Irish people to depart their native land. Indeed, Italians made up the largest group of migrants who came to America from 1880 to 1920.
  2. But dressing well did not mean spending a fortune.
  3. In fact, Italians were the largest immigrant population to work in the mines.
  4. Many of the farming tools were inefficient due to their antiquity and lack of modern technology, which did not allow for prospects for improvement. Between 1900 and 1924 more than 1.

Prejudices were especially aimed at Southern Italians who became scabs during strikes in construction, railroad, mining, long shoring, and industry. In the mining industry especially there was an ethnic hierarchy: English-speaking workers held the skilled and supervisory positions while the Italians were hired as laborers, loaders, and pick miners.

Even educated and skilled immigrants could not obtain other jobs besides labor. It was not until the 1920s that Italians became more integrated into the American working class.

Eastern European Immigrants in the United States

More immigrants started to work semi-skilled jobs in factories as well as skilled positions. However, one-third of the population remained unskilled. Even the tradesmen faced prejudice in the workplace where they were subordinate members in trade unions.

  • Even in families whose traditional observance had lapsed, women prepared a special family dinner for Friday evening and made sure that appropriate foods were available on Jewish festivals;
  • The refugees from Western Europe fled to mostly to Poland and Lithuania, and from there moved across the rest of Eastern Europe;
  • The emergence of steamship travel in the 1860s also resulted in decreasing travel costs for migrants from all three countries;
  • The 1924 amended version of the same act confined immigration to two per cent of a country's population in the United States in 1890, thereby excluding Italians and other more recent immigrant nationalities;
  • Of course, most immigrant sons did not even graduate from high school in the years before World War I; they became businessmen.

Meetings were held in English and Italians were not elected to official positions. Back to top Why immigrate? Poverty was a main reason for immigrating, but political hardship and the dream to return to Italy with enough money to buy land were motivators as well.

Many of the farming tools were inefficient due to their antiquity and lack of modern technology, which did not allow for prospects for improvement.

Often the farmers lived in harsh conditions, residing in one-room houses with no plumbing or privacy. In addition, many peasants were isolated due to a lack of roads in Italy. Landlords ruled the land—and charged high rents, low pay, and provided very unsteady employment.

The idea of immigrating to America was attractive because of the higher wages American workers received. For example, agricultural workers who farmed year-round would receive a meager 16-30 cents per day in Italy.

Emigration Across the Atlantic: Irish, Italians and Swedes compared, 1800–1950

Besides the already unfortunate situation of many Italian farmers, a 19th century agricultural crisis in Italy led to falling grain prices and loss of markets for fruit and wine. Specifically a disease, phylloxera, destroyed grape vines used to produce wine. Therefore, the United States was pictured as a nation with abundant land, high wages, lower taxes, and interestingly enough, no military draft. Many Italians wanted to acquire land in Italy.

Therefore, they moved to America to work and earn money, then repatriated. Political hardship was also a factor in motivating immigration. Starting in the 1870s the government took measures to repress political views such as anarchy and socialism. In general, Italians came to the United States to escape political policies.