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The main trend in birth and death rates in the uk since 1900

View all data used in this Statistical bulletin 1. Main points There were 695,233 live births in England and Wales in 2014, a decrease of 0. In 2014, the total fertility rate TFR decreased to 1. In 2014, the stillbirth rate remained at 4. The average age of mothers in 2014 increased to 30. Over a quarter 27. Summary This bulletin presents summary statistics of live births and stillbirths in England and Wales in 2014. These statistics include counts of live births and stillbirths, fertility rates by age of mother and by area of usual residence, and the percentage of births to mothers born outside the UK.

This is the first time that the 2014 annual figures for births in England and Wales have been published. Back to table of contents 3. Live births numbers and rates There were 695,233 live births in England and Wales in 2014, compared with 698,512 in 2013 a fall of 0.

The fall in live births in 2014 suggests a continuing downward trend, following on from the large decrease in the number of live births in 2013, which was the largest percentage annual decrease since 1975. This fall represents a change to the increasing numbers of births that had been reported each year from 2001 to 2012, with the exception of a 0. The number of live births and the total fertility rate TFR fluctuated throughout the 20th century with a sharp peak at the end of World War II Figure 1.

Live births peaked again in 1964 875,972 birthsbut since then lower numbers have been recorded. The lowest annual number of births in the 20th century was 569,259 in 1977. The number of births is dependent on both fertility rates and the size and age structure of the female population.

During the 1990s, the TFR fell from 1. This was largely due to women delaying childbearing to older ages Jefferies, 2008 423. The TFR increased steadily between 2002 and 2008 to 1. The fall in TFR from 1.

Number of live births and total fertility rate TFR1944 to 2014 Source: Office for National Statistics Notes: Based on births occurring in the calendar year. At this stage, it is not possible to determine whether the fall in the TFR and the number of live births in 2013 and 2014 is indicative of an end to the general increasing trend observed since 2001.

Despite this recent drop, the number of births and the TFR remain relatively high compared to figures for the last 3 decades.

Live births in England and Wales decreased by 0.5% between 2013 and 2014

Reasons for the decreases in fertility in 2014 are likely to vary by age, social status, and number of other children. Also, women who have already had children and who may be considering having another child will be influenced by different factors to those who have not yet had children. Other factors that could have had an impact on fertility levels in 2014 include: The changes, announced in 2011 and 2012, included: Stillbirths The number of stillbirths in England and Wales decreased to 3,254 in 2014 compared with 3,284 in 2013 a fall of 0.

In comparison, the total number of births both live births and stillbirths decreased by just 0. Stillbirths in England decreased by 1. Stillbirths in Wales increased by 15. Due to the small number of stillbirths in Wales, small changes in the number of stillbirths in a year can result in large percentage changes. The stillbirth rate takes into account the total number of births and so provides a more accurate indication of trends than just analysing the number of stillbirths over time.

In 2014, the stillbirth rate for England and Wales remained at 4. In 2013, this was the lowest stillbirth rate since 1992 when it was 4. In England, the stillbirth rate in 2014 was 4. There has been a general downward trend in the stillbirth rate since 2004 with a decrease of 19.

In Wales the stillbirth rate in 2014 was 5. Stillbirth rates, 2004 to 2014 England, Wales Source: Stillbirths per 1,000 live births and stillbirths. Based on stillbirths and births occurring in each calendar year. Download this chart Image.

Correction

The main risk factors for stillbirths include maternal obesity, smoking, and fetal growth restriction Gardosi et al. This has included identifying and agreeing the main messages that can be used to raise awareness of the risk factors for stillbirths among pregnant women and health professionals and the actions that can be taken to minimise these risks.

Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the United Kingdom since 1900

In Wales, a National Stillbirth Working Group was set up within the 1000 Lives Plus programme of work in April 2012, and includes representation of important stakeholders in maternity care.

The National Assembly for Wales published a report in 2013 which identified a number of actions to improve the stillbirth rate in Wales. Further information can be found on the 1000 Lives Plus website. Back to table of contents 5. Live births by age of mother In 2014 fertility decreased in all age groups under 30, while fertility increased in the 30 and over age groups.

  1. In Wales, a National Stillbirth Working Group was set up within the 1000 Lives Plus programme of work in April 2012, and includes representation of important stakeholders in maternity care. This was largely due to women delaying childbearing to older ages Jefferies, 2008 423.
  2. The National Assembly for Wales published a report in 2013 which identified a number of actions to improve the stillbirth rate in Wales. Over a quarter 27.
  3. The largest single year on year increase came from 1919 to 1920, not long after the end of the First World War, when births increased by 300,647. The largest percentage decrease was seen in women aged under 20, with a decrease of 10.
  4. Further information can be found on the 1000 Lives Plus website. The proportion of births to mothers born outside the UK has increased every year since 1990 when it was 11.
  5. Office for National Statistics Notes.

The largest percentage decrease was seen in women aged under 20, with a decrease of 10. Fertility rates for those aged under 20 have generally declined since 1999. An article looking into international comparisons of teenage births showed that the birth rate to women aged 15 to 19 has been decreasing across Europe since 2004. Fertility rates for women aged 20 to 24 and 25 to 29 fell by smaller amounts 5.

Fertility rates for those aged 20 to 24 have been falling since 2010, while the fertility rate for those aged 25 to 29 is the lowest since 2007. The largest percentage increase was seen in women aged 35 to 39 with an increase of 2.

Fertility rates for women aged 30 to 34 and 40 and over increased by smaller amounts 0. In most developed countries women have been increasingly delaying childbearing to later in life, which has resulted in increases in the mean age at first birth and rising fertility rates among older women.

Although fertility rates for women aged 40 and above have generally been rising fast, fertility among women in their 40s is still considerably lower than for women in their 30s. Women aged 30 to 34 currently have the highest fertility of any age group.

Trends in births and deaths over the last century

Age-specific fertility rates, 1984 to 2014 England and Wales Source: The average age of mothers has been increasing since 1975, with increasing numbers of women delaying childbearing to later ages. The number of births in a given year is dependent on the number of women in the main childbearing ages 15 to 44 years and on fertility rates in that year.

Compared with 2013, the number of live births in 2014 decreased for women aged under 20, 20 to 24 and 40 and over, while there were increases in the number of live births to women aged 25 to 29, 30 to 34 and 35 to 39 in 2014. Back to table of contents 7. Live births to mothers born outside the UK The percentage of live births in England and Wales to mothers born outside the UK continued to rise in 2014, reaching 27.

The proportion of births to mothers born outside the UK has increased every year since 1990 when it was 11. Recent rises in the number of births to non-UK born women can be mainly attributed to the increase in the population of women born outside the UK ONS, 2012. In recent years, the proportion of births to women born outside the UK has been higher than the proportion of the female population of childbearing age born outside the UK ONS, 2012.

There are 2 reasons for this: Fertility rates for women born in around 150 non-UK countries were analysed. Back to table of contents 8.

London had the lowest TFR 1. Fertility rates can vary considerably between sub-national areas for a wide variety of reasons. The composition of the population living in each area will vary, and there will be variations in economic, social and cultural factors that may influence fertility rates due to differences in the timing of childbearing, as well as ideals around family size. This is a fall of 0. In Scotland the number of births increased from 56,014 in 2013 to 56,725 in 2014 provisional figurea rise of 1.

Northern Ireland also recorded an increase in the number of births from 24,279 in 2013 to 24,393, a rise of 0. Users and uses of birth statistics The Office for National Statistics uses births data to: Data are used, for example, to plan maternity services, inform policy decisions and monitor child mortality.

The Public Health Outcomes Framework sets out the desired outcomes for public health and how these are measured. This includes indicators related to births. Local authorities and other government departments are important users of birth statistics and use the data for planning and resource allocation.

Trends in births and deaths in the UK since 1900

For example, local authorities use birth statistics to decide how many school places will be needed in a given area. The Department for Work and Pensions uses detailed birth statistics to feed into statistical models they use for pensions and benefits. The Department of Health uses the data to plan maternity services and inform policy decisions. Other users include academics, demographers and health researchers, who conduct research into birth trends and characteristics.

Lobby groups use birth statistics for their cause, for example, campaigns against school closures or midwife shortages. Special interest groups, such as Birth Choice UK, make the data available to enable comparisons between maternity units to help women choose where they might like to give birth and work closely with health professionals. Charities, such as the Twins and Multiple Births Association provide advice and support to multiple birth parents and use the data to monitor trends.

Organisations such as Eurostat and the UN use our birth statistics for international comparison purposes. The media also report on main trends and statistics.