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The major social problem of homelessness in america

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services.

Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations.

Social Problems: Homelessness in the United States

Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Methods Fuzzy Logic FL and fuzzy cognitive maps FCMs are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form i. Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence weights for pairs of factors.

We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors.

Do You See Them?

Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Results Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness.

  1. They are seemingly everywhere and yet they are the invisible people. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.
  2. Homelessness is difficult to define, thus governments struggle with uncertainty when creating and implementing policies they hope will effectively manage or eradicate this problem. First, homelessness may lead to crack and drug addiction because "big-city shelters are full of crack, and so are many of the public places where the homeless gather.
  3. I still find it hard to believe that a veteran who served his country could die in such a fashion. Department of Veterans Affairs to provide effective mental health care for veterans.
  4. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.
  5. The Cold, Hard Numbers In a given year, as many as 3.

The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted. This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness.

Conclusions The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the sample scenarios created.

Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a Fuzzy Cognitive Map approach

This confirmed that the model worked and that a search of peer reviewed, academic literature is a reasonable foundation upon which to build the model. Further, it was determined that the direction and strengths of relationships between concepts included in this map are a reasonable approximation of their action in reality. However, dynamic models are not without their limitations and must be acknowledged as inherently exploratory.

Background

Homelessness, Complex social system, Fuzzy the major social problem of homelessness in america, Fuzzy Cognitive Map, Network analysis Background Homelessness Homelessness is a complex social problem with a variety of underlying economic and social factors such as poverty, lack of affordable housing, uncertain physical and mental health, addictions, and community and family breakdown.

These factors, in varying combinations, contribute to duration, frequency, and type of homelessness. To be fully homeless is to live without shelter; however, many experience partial homelessness that can include uncertain, temporary, or sub-standard shelter.

Homelessness is difficult to define, thus governments struggle with uncertainty when creating and implementing policies they hope will effectively manage or eradicate this problem. Levels of government, in countries like Canada, add to the complexity of dealing with homelessness. Being governed at three different levels, federal, provincial, and municipal, requires high levels of agreement to effectively create and administer policies.

In Canada, each level of government is responsible for different facets of homelessness. The provincial government, responsible for needs of the provinces and territories, creates and administers policies regarding mental illness, addictions, welfare, minimum wage laws, landlord and tenant acts, and child protection services and shares responsibility with the federal government for seniors and social housing.

The municipal governments, are seen as the hands or arms of the provincial government, and are technically not responsible for homelessness; however are often involved in choosing sites for social housing, supporting emergency shelters and hospital emergency wards, as well as providing support, in a variety of ways, to facilitate these initiatives. This lack of coordination towards policy and funding for homelessness has recently come to the attention of courts in Canada who have begun to make decisions which support shelter as an essential right for Canadians [ 2 ].

The UN Special Rapporteur on adequate housing in Canada has also strongly urged the federal government to commit sufficient funding to create a national housing strategy by working with the provinces and territories [ 3 ]. Metro Vancouver is one city in Canada which conducts a comprehensive homeless count every three years [ 4 ].

  1. Collectively, these have all helped create the unstable environment for the poor that has contributed significantly to the rise in homelessness over the past 20 years. Drug use, however, is in most ways a personal decision.
  2. Levels of government, in countries like Canada, add to the complexity of dealing with homelessness. Abstract Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature.
  3. Abstract Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature.
  4. Causes of Homelessness According to the U.
  5. They have become so common as to become a part of the landscape, of no more importance than the wall of a building they lean against, or the freeway overpass that serves as their bedroom ceiling.