Homeworks academic service


The many theories explaining the meaning of text

How people comprehend texts. History and Orientation A number of theories about reading exist in which different parts of the reading process are described: This theory describes the complete reading process, from recognizing words until constructing a representation of the meaning of the text. The emphasis of the theory is on understanding the meaning of a text. Kintsch continued working on the theory. In 1988, it was extended with the so-called construction-integration model Kintsch, 1988followed by a completely updated theory in 1998 Kintsch, 1998.

This theory is often used as a starting point for constructing own models and theories, which several authors have done.

Model of Text Comprehension

Core Assumptions and Statements When a reader reads a text, an "understanding" of the text is created in the reader's mind. The process of constructing a situation model is called the "comprehension process". Kintsch and van Dijk assume that readers of a text build three different mental representations of the text: The propositional representation consists initially of a list of propositions that are derived from the text. After having read a complete sentence, this list of propositions is transformed into a network of propositions.

If the text is coherent, all nodes of the network are connected to each other.

Available Languages

The situational representation is comparable with the mental models described by Johnson-Laird. Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategies.

Research on text comprehension in multimedia environments. Favorite Methods To be added. Scope and Application Text comprehension can be used for studying how people comprehend text in a second language with the help of multimodal instructional materials. Example An example of reading ability is vocabulary knowledge: Another example is related to a cognitive aspect. A learner selects relevant information from what is presented and constructs mental representations of the text.

This process is moderated by individual differences, such as prior knowledge, abilities, preferences, strategies and effective factors. References Key publications Van Dijk, T. Strategies of discourse comprehension. Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 85 5363-394.

  • Here, as there, we have a pair of belief ascriptions which seem as though they could differ in truth-value despite the fact that these sentences differ only with respect to expressions counted as synonymous by the relevant semantic theory;
  • It seems that it must;
  • Thus, both speakers understand the meanings of their utterances, which are different, by virtue of their grasping the same character;
  • A semantic theory that is capable of explaining compositionality is called compositional.

The use of knowledge in discourse processing: Psychological Review, 95, 163-182. A paradigm for cognition.

  • Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategies;
  • Since with respect to that circumstance of evaluation the terms will differ in reference, their intensions—which are just functions from circumstances of evaluations to referents—must also differ;
  • Marguerite de Valois, New York;
  • In addition to compositionality, semantic theories must also account for the phenomenon of reference;
  • But even on a single occasion it is possible that not everyone who hears fire!
  • Evidence of a formal schema in second language comprehension.

Reading in a foreign language: A reading problem or a language problem? A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading comprehension. Evidence of a formal schema in second language comprehension.

Language Learning, 34, 87-113. Identifying student learning styles: The Modern Language Journal, 68, 212-221.

How do L1 and L2 reading differ? Evidence from think aloud protocols. The Modern Language Journal, 77 4459-472. Manual for kit of factor-referenced cognitive tests. Integrative motivation, induced anxiety, and language learning in a controlled environment. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 197-214.

Dictionary use while reading: The effects on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition for students of different verbal abilities. The Modern Language Journal, 78 3285-299.

  1. This result—that content determines reference—explains one thing we should, plausibly, want a semantic theory to do. Although Eco rejects the relevance of consulting the empirical author in order to discover his or her intention, he does say that there is one instance where this can prove to be fruitful.
  2. The Modern Language Journal, 68, 212-221. The motivations for temporalism are both metaphysical and semantic.
  3. Such examples are easy to multiply. But there are some general issues in semantics which, while more general than questions about how, for example, the semantics of adverbs should go, are largely though not wholly orthogonal to the question of whether our semantics should be developed in accordance with a possible worlds, Russellian, Fregean, Davidsonian, or Chomskyan framework.
  4. A semantic theory that is capable of explaining compositionality is called compositional. Communicative organization in natural language.
  5. How do L1 and L2 reading differ? Both of these positions can seem unappealing—skepticism because it does seem that I can occasionally know, e.

Aids to text comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 19, 30-42. On the relation between dual coding and mental models in graphics comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 3, 247-249. The effect of graphic representation of knowledge structures on ESL reading comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 177-195. A comparative study using illustrations, brainstorming, and questions as advance organizers in intermediate college German conversation classes.

The Modern Language Journal, 80 4509-517. Het verwerken van tekst. Taalbeheersing als communicatiewetenschap pp.

Meaning-text theory