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The negative and positive effects of the marijuana

Schedule one substances are defined as currently having no accepted medical use in the USA and having a high potential for abuse. Cannabis is the name of the genus to which the plant belongs. Three species names for Cannabis are indica, sativa, and ruderlaris. The preparation made from the stems, buds, and leaves of Cannabis is known as marijuana.

Cannabis' psychoactive effects are caused by potent psychotoxins, which are present throughout its various forms i. The most well known of these psychotoxins, which is also it's primary psychoactive component, is delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol THC. There are many forms of THC; at least eighty derivatives have been synthesized and studied pharmacologically. The effects of THC range from euphoria and relaxation to anxiousness. From the various studies that have been done on marijuana, there has emerged evidence for marijuana having positive medical effects on people.

Throughout history, cannabis has been a plant that has been used for medicinal purposes all over the world. By classifying marijuana under schedule one, is the government failing to acknowledge the many therapeutic advantages of marijuana? This paper will discuss the historical and current uses of marijuana and come to a conclusion on whether or not the beneficial effects of marijuana are conclusive enough for it to be used medicinally.

The chemistry behind THC remained a mystery until 1942, when H. Wollner and his co-workers first isolated and identified a natural tetrahydrocannabinol. In the mid to late 1940's, synthetic forms of THC began to appear under the trade names synhexyl, pyrahexyl, and parahexyl.

THC is a highly lipid soluble molecule which is found throughout the male and female parts of the cannabis plant.

  1. These plaques are what kill brain cells and cause Alzheimers. The researchers studied breast cancer cells in the lab that had high expression levels of Id-1 and treated them with cannabidiol.
  2. These plaques are what kill brain cells and cause Alzheimers. This finding raises the possibility that SR141716A could be used for improving memory in those aging and for those with cognitive disorders, supporting the theory that THC induces short-term memory loss.
  3. This made me anxious. Science is headed in the right direction by developing new drugs that mimic the effects of marijuana and by continuing its quest to learn more about it.
  4. Yet, I also knew this could not be. That is why until 1991, America's Food and Drug Administration FDA permitted ophthamologists to prescribe marijuana to patients for whom all other treatments had failed.
  5. The effects of THC range from euphoria and relaxation to anxiousness. When the nerve terminal releases anandamide, it inhibits other nerve cells that trigger physical action.

The highest concentration of THC is present in the sticky resin that is produced by the flowering portion of the female plant. The THC content of marijuana varies depending on the section of the plant that is used. Today, although much progress has been made in molecular biology with regards to cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, CB1Athere is still much to be discovered.

CB1 receptors are mainly found in specific areas of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system. Within these areas, high density binding occurs in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, hippocampus and cerebral cortex, while low density binding occurs in the brainstem.

CB2 receptors are found mainly in the immune system on the spleen, tonsils, B cells, minocytes, natural killer cells, T4 cells, and T8 cells. All cannabinoid receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled plasma membrane receptors. Currently, a number of carefully directed laboratory studies are under way to explore the mechanisms behind cannabinoids and its receptors to explore their roles in the positive and negative effects short and long term of using marijuana.

In 1992, a paper in Science was published revealing the discovery of an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor. William Devane and Raphael Mechoulam of the Hebrew University discovered the endogenous ligand, which was later named anandamide.

Long before any research was ever done on marijuana, people used it all over the world for a variety of reasons. The oldest record of medicinal use of marijuana comes from Chinese texts, around 5000 years ago.

Short and Long Term CBD effects of Smoking Weed on Health

Its exact origins are still unknown but most experts hypothesize that it originated from somewhere in Central Asia, north of the Himalayan Mountains. The Latin term cannabis had a Greek origin kannabis whereas the English word hemp is derived from Middle English hempe and the earlier Old English form henep or haenep. The term marijuana may have arisen from the Portuguese marihuango or the Mexican-Spanish mariguana, both of which mean "intoxicant.

The use of the term cannabis is international, yet its products and the plant itself can be called many different names. The synonyms, excluding the street names, are almost legion and vary from country to country.

Short and Long Term CBD effects of Smoking Weed on Health

For example, Central Africans refer to cannabis as mata, kwane, M bhanze, or dagga while Indians commonly refer to it as charas, bhang, ganja, or hashish. Central Asiatic nomads may have been the agents for cultural dispersion of the hemp plant throughout Asia. Warlike equestrian pastoralists inhabiting Scythia, a large ancient region in southeastern Europe and Asia used the hemp plant for textiles and intoxication.

Herodotus, a famous Greek historian, stated that the "Scythian passion was inhaling the smoke of burning hemp plants. Later it was discovered by Russian archaeologists that hemp fibers were used by the Scythians for certain types of clothing's. Ancient Iranian literature implies that the hemp plant was used as an oil source. However, hemp's most significant use in southwest Asia, Egypt, the Mediterranean region, and Africa was for intoxicating purposes.

The Assyrians in ancient Mesopotamia used hemp for fibers, incense, cultivation of sesame and flax for essential fats, and most notably, for drug sources. In the Mediterranean region, there is strong evidence that hemp intoxication was a popular social practice. In the first century of the Christian era, Dioscordes, a physician, wrote a book on medicinal herbs. He was unaware of the "dioecious nature of the hemp plant and therefore listed a separate species for both the female Kannabis Emeros and the male Kannabis Agria.

For the male, on the other hand, cannabis the negative and positive effects of the marijuana be used for muscular ailments.


Claudius Galen 130-193 A. It was noted that it caused dry mouth but if taken in excess, produced sluggishness torpor. It was often customary to offer guests hemp seeds as a promoter of hilarity. Marijuana was used to some extent for ecstatic purposes and had limited drug use in the northerly regions of central and Western Europe. In the Chinese culture, one of the early medicinal uses of hemp was for "absent-mindedness. In his pharmacological book, he wrote that hemp should be prescribed for "female weakness, gout, rheumatism, malaria, beriberi, constipation, and absent-mindedness.

The earliest synonym for hemp in ancient India was bhanga. In old Indian folk songs, "ganga or bhanga was the invariable drink of heroes before performing great feats of heroism. In the XV Fargard of the Vendidad, a compilation of religious laws and myths, hemp is referred to as a substance that stimulates abortions.

In the Din Yast, a devotional treatise dedicated to the goddess Kista, hemp is referred to as being used for inducing euphoric feelings and righteous actions.

  1. I very much do not want to use marijuana today, since I have come to fear it, based on the negative experiences I had. Somewhere between 20 and 30 percent of recreational marijuana users react with intense anxiety after taking the drug, making it one of the most commonly reported side effects.
  2. THC co-opts these natural pathways to produce most of its effects. In the mid to late 1940's, synthetic forms of THC began to appear under the trade names synhexyl, pyrahexyl, and parahexyl.
  3. It was noted that it caused dry mouth but if taken in excess, produced sluggishness torpor. Marijuana treats inflammatory bowel diseases.
  4. Historical context of state dependent learning and discriminative drug effects.

Despite of all the evidence supporting marijuana's historical use for medicinal purposes, there is still much to be learned about its risks and benefits. They suggested that studies begin on producing inhalation devices to provide a safe alternative to the harmful effects of smoking. The study concluded that cannabinoids can be useful in treating pain, nausea and appetite loss caused by advanced cancer and AIDS.

D-tetrahydrocannabinol THC also acts as a sedative and reduces anxiety, which in itself may have therapeutic effects. The results of the studies done by IOM also stated that there was no evidence for marijuana being a "gateway" to harder drugs, or that it is addictive.


Recently it was discovered that THC mimics the lipid molecule anandamide, both of which bind to the same cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, in the body. Anandamide, an endogenous cannabimimetic eicosanoid, is a member of the a family of fatty acid ethanolamides. Danielle Piomelli University of California at Irvine and his colleagues have recently uncovered one of anandamide's endogenous roles. When the nerve terminal releases anandamide, it inhibits other nerve cells that trigger physical action.

This inhibition occurs by blocking the action of the brain neurotransmitter dopamine. Self, of the Yale University The negative and positive effects of the marijuana of Medicine, says that "these findings promise to propel anandamide from candidate status to bona fide neurotransmitter and may also open the door to novel treatments for diseases that involve dysfunction of dopamine signaling.

The striatum is densely seeded with both dopamine and anandamide receptors. From these studies, it can be concluded that anandamide acts as a dopamine "brake.

There is some evidence that boosting anandamidelike activity by administering THC alleviates symptoms of Tourette's syndrome, although this research is still in its preliminary stages. Each one of the reports concluded that cannabinoids may be potentially useful as analgesics, antispasmodics, anti-emetics, appetite stimulants, and in treatment of epilepsy and glaucoma. Much of the evidence is from small controlled trials of oral dronabinol or nabilone.

Although much evidence was gathered from these trials, doubt still lingers due to the difference between oral THC and smoked cannabis products. CB1 binding in the substantia gelatinosa could mediate analgesia while the high CB1 density in the basal ganglia could be the basis of antispasmodic effects of CB1 agonists. CB2 receptors so far are known to mainly appear on immune cells, especially on B cells.

Activation of these receptors by cannabinoid agonists may cause the alleged immunosuppressant effect of cannabis. However, THC is unlikely to have a substantial effect at this receptor due to its low affinity for the CB2 receptor. More studies done with CB2 agonists and antagonists need to be done to help further see the effects of activating the CB2 receptor.

In the case of Multiple Sclerosis MSmarijuana seems to bring relief to sufferers like no other painkillers can. Multiple Sclerosis is a debilitating disease that causes damage to the brain and destruction of the protective fatty coating around nerve cells.

Subsequently, sufferers of MS tend to experience burning sensations in the limbs, particularly at night. Conventional analgesics can do little to ease this pain. Sufferers say that smoking a joint before bedtime can be the difference between getting sleeping at night and staying awake due to the pain. Sufferers of MS also experience spasms as a result of nerve damage. Marijuana has shown to help control the incidence of spasms in MS sufferers, epilepsy sufferers, and those who have suffered the negative and positive effects of the marijuana cord injuries.

Although there have not been many studies done on this aspect of therapeutic marijuana, the studies that have been done so far suggest that the sufferers may be right. One of the first therapeutic uses of marijuana in the modern era has been its effects in suppressing nausea suffered by anti-cancer chemotherapy patients.

The controversy in this case is whether or not marijuana needs to be smoked in order to achieve the full benefits. Unlike THC capsules or other legal nausea suppressors, smoking marijuana in the joint form allows the patients to have control over the dosage. This also allows patients to feel as though they have some sense of control over their bodies while suffering from cancer, a life-threatening illness that they have no control over.

Another well-known effect of marijuana is its ability to increase appetite. This could be helpful for anyone who has a decreased appetite due to an illness, especially those with AIDS and cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy.

The positives and negatives: How marijuana affects your brain and body

Smoking marijuana seems to be a more effective method to increase appetite than ingesting the THC capsule due to the poor absorption of the capsule in the digestive tract. Cost of treatment plays a role in marijuana use because the alternative to smoking marijuana to increase appetite is taking human growth hormone GH supplements. Another alternative that was approved by the FDA is the use of Marinol. Marinol is a drug that contains the active ingredient of marijuana, THC.

The positives and negatives: How marijuana affects your brain and body

The problem with Marinol is that it doesn't always work as well as smoking marijuana. It is difficult to take just the right dosage of Marinol. If too little is taken, the effects can not be felt but if too much is ingested, then Marinol acts as a sedative. More conclusive studies need to be conducted on the relationship between marijuana and appetite in order to weigh the risks and benefits.