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The representation of the united states of america

United States House of Representatives

The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.

But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

House of Representatives and the seats in the House are apportioned based on state population according to the constitutionally mandated Census. Representation based on population in the House was one of the most important components of the Federal Constitutional Convention of Origins The American Revolution was, in part, a contest about the very definition of representation.

  1. Exceptions can result in so-called floor fight—convention votes by delegates, with outcomes that can be hard to predict. The Constitutional Convention addressed multiple concerns in the process of designing the new Congress.
  2. Black Faces in the Mirror.
  3. University of Chicago Press,
  4. In most states, major party candidates for each district are nominated in partisan primary elections , typically held in spring to late summer. Black Faces in the Mirror.
  5. Each state is entitled to at least one Representative, however small its population.

In England, the House of Commons represented every British subject regardless of whether the subject could actually vote for its membership. American colonists, who were used to controlling their local affairs in the directly-elected colonial legislatures, lacked a voice in Parliament and resented the British policies imposed on them.

Thus, they rallied behind the now familiar motto: The Articles of Confederation created the first national congress to represent the interests of the states: Approved by the 39th Congress — as H.

Netherlands representation(s) in United States

The Constitutional Convention addressed multiple concerns in the process of designing the new Congress. The first was the relationship of the least populous states to the most populous.

Proportional Representation

The battle between big and small states colored most of the Convention and nearly ended hopes of creating a national government. Pennsylvania Delegate Benjamin Franklin summed up the disagreement: If an equality of votes is to be put in its place, the large States say their money will be in danger.

When a broad table is to be made, and the edges of planks do not fit the artist takes a little from both, and makes a good joint. The compromise enabled the Convention, teetering on the brink of dissolution, to continue. The Convention determined that a Census of the population conducted every 10 years would enable the House to adjust the distribution of its Membership on a regular basis.

The method, however, proved controversial. Southern delegates argued that their slaves counted in the population, yielding them more Representatives. Northern delegates countered that slaves were property and should not be counted at all.

Proportional Representation

Before federal income taxes or tariffs, the states contributed to the national government with local taxes, often flat poll taxes on each citizen.

Since constitutional framers had to provide for the funding of the new government, they debated the proper relationship between representation and taxation.

Representations: United States

Several delegates argued that geographic size or useable farmland were better measures of state wealth than mere population. Delegates, however, settled on proportional contributions based on population and, by extension, the number of Members in the House of Representatives. Large states, with more human capital, should contribute more revenue to the national government and also have more seats in the legislature as a result.

This fulfilled the promise of the American Revolution: The latter amendments, however, did not alter congressional apportionment.

Proportional Representation

Current Practice Congress has capped the number of Representatives at since the Apportionment Act of except for a temporary increase to during the admission of Hawaii and Alaska as states in As a result, over the last century, congressional districts have more than tripled in size—from an average of roughlyinhabitants after the Census to aboutinhabitants following the Census.

For Further Reading U.

Swiss representation in the United States of America

Congressional Reapportionment and Urban—Rural Conflict in the s. University of Georgia Press, The Records of the Federal Convention of New Haven and London: Yale University Press, University of Chicago Press, Black Faces in the Mirror: African Americans and Their Representatives in the U.

Princeton University Press, Office of the Historian: