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The role of religion in ancient greek conflicts during the medieval and renaissance periods

Many historians assert that it started earlier or ended later, depending on the country. It bridged the periods of the Middle Ages and modern history, and, depending on the country, overlaps with the Early Modern, Elizabethan and Restoration periods. The Renaissance is most closely associated with Italy, where it began in the 14thcentury, though countries such as Germany, England and France went through many of the same cultural changes and phenomena.

Many historians, including U. Wilde said that interpreting the Renaissance as a time period, though convenient for historians, "masks the long roots of the Renaissance. Gutenberg's press allowed more Bibles, books and music to reach more people. Renaissance thinkers considered the Middle Ages to have been a period of cultural decline.

They sought to revitalize their culture through re-emphasizing classical texts and philosophies. They expanded and interpreted them, creating their own style of art, philosophy and scientific inquiry. Some major developments of the Renaissance include astronomy, humanist philosophy, the printing press, vernacular language in writing, painting and sculpture technique, world exploration and, in the late Renaissance, Shakespeare's works.

The term Renaissance was not commonly used to refer to the period until the 19thcentury, when Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt popularized it in his classic, " The Civilization of Renaissance Italy. Charles Homer Haskins wrote in " The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century " that there were three main periods that saw resurgences in the art and philosophy of antiquity: The 12thCentury Renaissance was especially influential on the later Renaissance, said Wilde.

Classical Latin texts and Greek science and philosophy began to be revived on a larger scale, and early versions of universities were established. Islamic countries kept many classical Greek and Roman texts that had been lost in Europe, and they were reintroduced through returning crusaders. The fall of the Byzantine and Roman Empires at the hands of the Ottomans also played a role. This created an atmosphere for a revival in learning. This image, from a Flemish illustrated manuscript of 1349, shows plague victims being buried in the city of Tournai, now in Belgium.

Historical development

Gottfried in " The Black Death. The Medici family moved to Florence in the wake of the plague. They, and many others, took advantage of opportunities for greater social mobility. Becoming patrons of artists was a popular way for such newly powerful families to demonstrate their wealth.

Some historians also argue that the Black Death caused people to question the church's emphasis on the afterlife and focus more on the present moment, which is an element of the Renaissance's humanist philosophy.

Many historians consider Florence to be the Renaissance's birthplace, though others widen that designation to all of Italy. Military invasions in Italy helped spread ideas, while the end of the Hundred Years War between France and England allowed people to focus on things besides conflict.

Characteristics of the Renaissance The printing press "The demand for perfect reproductions of texts and the renewed focus on studying them helped trigger one of the biggest discoveries in the whole of human history: For me this is the easiest and single greatest developed of the Renaissance and allowed modern culture to develop," Wilde told Live Science. The printing press was developed in Europe by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440.

  1. The oration that he delivered at the ceremony is considered the first manifesto of the Renaissance because of the praise that he showers upon the ancient Roman poets.
  2. He was continually in debt throughout his adult life and often sought desperate means for paying off is creditors, which ultimately led to him being charged with political corruption.
  3. They began to incorporate lyrics more dramatically into compositions and considered music and poetry to be closely related, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  4. After completing his university education at Oxford, for several decades he worked as a private tutor for distinguished families, one of his pupils being a future King of England. God predestines some people to salvation, 3 limited atonement.
  5. It has been traditionally held that by the 14th century the dynamic force of medieval civilization had been spent and that the late Middle Ages were characterized by decline and decay. Any destruction that goes beyond these three situations is unjustifiable.

It allowed Bibles, secular books, printed music and more to be made in larger amounts and reach more people. How Gutenberg Changed the World ] Intellectual movement Wilde said one of the most significant changes that occurred during the Renaissance was the "evolution of Renaissance humanism as a method of thinking … This new outlook underpinned so much of the world then and now. Renaissance readers understood these classical texts as focusing on human decisions, actions and creations, rather than unquestioningly following the rules set forth by the Catholic Church as "God's plan.

  • The laws of conscience, which we pretend to be derived from nature, proceed from custom;
  • He continued writing until his final years when he died from a stroke at the age of 90;
  • He was sentenced to imprisonment, then commuted to house arrest, where he lived another eight years, producing more writings before becoming blind;
  • God not only pre-selects some people for salvation, but he also pre-selects others for damnation;
  • The printing press was developed in Europe by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440.

Renaissance humanism was an "ethical theory and practice that emphasized reason, scientific inquiry and human fulfillment in the natural world," said Abernethy. Both classical and Renaissance art focused on human beauty and nature. People, even when in religious works, were depicted living life and showing emotion.

Middle Ages

Perspective and light and shadow techniques improved and paintings looked more three-dimensional and realistic. Patrons made it possible for successful Renaissance artists to work and develop new techniques. The Catholic Church commissioned most artwork during the Middle Ages, and while it continued to do so during the Renaissance, wealthy individuals also became important patrons, according to Cox.

The most famous patrons were the Medici family in Florence, who supported the arts for much of the 15thand 16thcenturies. Pope Leo X a Medici ambitiously filled the city with religious buildings and art.

This period, from the 1490s to the 1520s, is known as the High Renaissance. Music As with art, musical innovations in the Renaissance were partly made possible because patronage expanded beyond the Catholic Church.

According to the Metropolitan Museum of Artnew technologies resulted in the invention of several new instruments, including the harpsichord and violin family. The printing press meant that sheet music could be more widely disseminated.

Renaissance music was characterized by its humanist traits. Composers read classical treatises on music and aimed to create music that would touch listeners emotionally. They began to incorporate lyrics more dramatically into compositions and considered music and poetry to be closely related, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Literature Renaissance literature, too, was characterized by humanist themes and a return to classical ideals of tragedy and comedy, according to the Brooklyn College English Department.

Shakespeare's works, especially "Hamlet," are good examples of this. Themes like human agency, life's non-religious meanings and the true nature of man are embraced, and Hamlet is an educated Renaissance man.

The Renaissance: The 'Rebirth' of Science & Culture

Society and economics The most prevalent societal change during the Renaissance was the fall of feudalism and the rise of a capitalist market economy, said Abernethy. Increased trade and the labor shortage caused by the Black Death gave rise to something of a middle class. Workers could demand wages and good living conditions, and so serfdom ended. There were no more knights in service to the king and peasants in service to the lord of the manor," said Abernethy.

Having money became more important than your allegiances. Religion Due to a number of factors — including the Black Death, the rise in trade, the development of a middle class and the papacy's temporary move from Rome to Avignon 1309-1377 — the Catholic Church's influence was waning as the 15thcentury began.

The re-emergence of classical texts and the rise in Renaissance humanism changed society's approach to religion and the authority of the papacy, said Abernethy. Geography Thirsty to learn more about the world and eager to improve trade routes, explorers sailed off to chart new lands. Columbus "discovered" the New World in 1492 and Ferdinand Magellan became the first person to successfully circumnavigate the globe in the early 1500s.

Science As scholars studied classical texts, they "resurrected the Ancient Greek belief that creation was constructed around perfect laws and reasoning," Abernethy said. Public domain One of the major scientific discoveries of the Renaissance came from Polish mathematician and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. In the 1530s, he published his theory of a heliocentric solar system. It was a major breakthrough in the history of science, though Copernicus' book was banned by the Catholic Church.

Empiricism began to take hold of scientific thought. They were being recognized as two separate fields, creating conflict between the scientists and the church and causing scientists to be persecuted," continued Abernethy. Galileo improved the telescope, discovered new celestial bodies and found support for a heliocentric solar system.

He conducted motion experiments on pendulums and falling objects that paved the way for Newton's discoveries about gravity. The Catholic Church forced him to spend the last nine years of his life under house arrest. How the Renaissance changed the world "The Renaissance was a time of transition from the ancient world to the modern and provided the foundation for the birth of the Age of Enlightenment," said Abernethy.

The developments in science, art, philosophy and trade, as well as technological advancements like the printing press, left lasting impressions on society and set the stage for many elements of our modern culture.

  1. The Renaissance is most closely associated with Italy, where it began in the 14thcentury, though countries such as Germany, England and France went through many of the same cultural changes and phenomena.
  2. Many historians have questioned the conventional dating of the beginning and end of the Middle Ages, which were never precise in any case and cannot be located in any year or even century. They are, 1 there exists a supreme God, 2 we should worship him, 3 the best form of worship consists of proper moral behavior, 4 we should repent for our immoral conduct, and 5 we will be rewarded or punished in the afterlife for our conduct on earth.
  3. Themes like human agency, life's non-religious meanings and the true nature of man are embraced, and Hamlet is an educated Renaissance man. Nevertheless, he was soon ordained a priest and began teaching biblical theology at the newly founded University of Wittenberg.