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Where do page numbers go in a research paper

Apply general APA style and formatting conventions in a research paper. There are a few major formatting styles used in academic texts, including AMA, Chicago, and Turabian: AMA American Medical Association for medicine, health, and biological sciences APA American Psychological Association for education, psychology, and the social sciences Chicago—a common style used in everyday publications like magazines, newspapers, and books MLA Modern Language Association for English, literature, arts, and humanities Turabian—another common style designed for its universal application across all subjects and disciplines While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone.

Writing a good research paper is, in and of itself, a major intellectual challenge. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements.

Following these guidelines, however, serves several important purposes. Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic.

Furthermore, producing a letter-perfect APA-style paper need not be burdensome. Yes, it requires careful attention to detail. However, you can simplify the process if you keep these broad guidelines in mind: Work ahead whenever you can. What Will I Learn? Get it right the first time. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage.

Again, putting in a little extra time early on can save time later. Use the resources available to you.

Format for a Research Paper

In addition to the guidelines provided in this chapter, you may wish to consult the APA website at http: General Formatting Guidelines This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA.

Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box. These are the major components of an APA-style paper: Title page Body, which includes the following: Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the content In-text citations of research sources References page All these components must be saved in one document, not as separate documents.

Title Page The title page of your paper includes the following information: Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. Your title page should look like the following example. Abstract The next page of your paper provides an abstractor brief summary of your findings.

An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis.

A good abstract is concise—about one hundred to one hundred fifty words—and is written in an objective, impersonal style.

How to Format Your Research Paper

Your writing voice will not be as apparent here as in the body of your paper. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences. Note how it sums up the major ideas in his paper without going into excessive detail.

  1. Be sure to save the changed file. Indent the first line of a paragraph half an inch from the left margin.
  2. Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style.
  3. Second level headings should be flush left, italicized, using upper and lower case.
  4. This tells Word that the next page begins a new section which may have a different header or footer.

Exercise 1 Write an abstract summarizing your paper. Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research.

Text Formatting

Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words. Tip Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field. Margins, Pagination, and Headings APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper.

Review the following APA guidelines. Use these general guidelines to format the paper: Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.

Use double-spaced text throughout your paper. Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size 10- to 12-point. Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section.

Page numbers appear flush right within your header. Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting. Exercise 2 Begin formatting the final draft of your paper according to APA guidelines. You may work with an existing document or set up a new document if you choose. Your title page The abstract you created in Note 13. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on.

These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information. The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance: Headings use title case, with important words in the heading capitalized.

Subsection headings use left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case. The third level uses left-aligned, indented, boldface type.

Formatting a Research Paper

Headings use a capital letter only for the first word, and they end in a period. The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized.

Q. How do I number pages differently in the various sections of my thesis or dissertation?

The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced.

Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 13.