Homeworks academic service


14 discuss the powerful influence of perception on communication

Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice. The key difference is how researchers conceptualize and operationalize both of these terms. Moreover, the influence of communication in how individuals and communities understand, conceptualize, and pass on religious and 14 discuss the powerful influence of perception on communication beliefs and practices is integral to understanding exactly what religion and culture are.

It is through exploring the relationships among religion, culture, and communication that we can best understand how they shape the world in which we live and have shaped the communication discipline itself.

Furthermore, as we grapple with these relationships and terms, we can look to the future and realize that the study of religion, culture, and communication is vast and open to expansion. Researchers are beginning to explore the influence of mediation on religion and culture, how our globalized world affects the communication of religions and cultures, and how interreligious communication is misunderstood; and researchers are recognizing the need to extend studies into non-Christian religious cultures.

There is not one accepted definition for any of these three terms, and research suggests that the connections among these concepts are complex, to say the least. Thus, this article attempts to synthesize the various approaches to these three terms and integrate them. In such an endeavor, it is impossible to discuss all philosophical and paradigmatic debates or include all disciplines.

Religion It is difficult to define religion from one perspective and with one encompassing definition. Geertz 1973 defined a religion as 1 a system which acts to 2 establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by 3 formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and 4 clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that 5 the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic.

2.4 Improving Perception

To better understand how religion relates to and affects culture and communication, we should first explore key definitions, philosophies, and perspectives that have informed how we currently look at religion. In particular, the influences of Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, and Georg Simmel are discussed to further understand the complexity of religion. Karl Marx 1818—1883 saw religion as descriptive and evaluative. First, from a descriptive point of view, Marx believed that social and economic situations shape how we form and regard religions and what is religious.

For Marx, the fact that people tend to turn to religion more when they are facing economic hardships or that the same religious denomination is practiced differently in different communities would seem perfectly logical. For Marx, the notion that the Catholic Church, for example, had the ability or right to excommunicate an individual, and thus essentially exclude them from the spiritual community, was a classic example of exploitation and domination.

Such alienation and exploitation was later echoed in the works of Friedrich Nietzsche 1844—1900who viewed organized religion as society and culture controlling man Nietzsche, 1996. Building on Marxist thinking, Weber 1864—1920 stressed the multicausality of religion. Weber 1963 emphasized three arguments regarding religion and society: Until the Protestant Reformation of the 15th and 16th centuries, Catholicism was the dominant religious ideology on the European continent.

However, since the Reformation, Europe has increasingly become more Protestant and less Catholic.

In This Article

To fully grasp why many Europeans gravitate toward Protestantism and not Catholicism, we must consider the historical and cultural reasons: Finally, even though 14 discuss the powerful influence of perception on communication majority of Europeans identify as Protestant, secularism separation of church and state is becoming more prominent in Europe.

14 discuss the powerful influence of perception on communication nations like France, laws are in place that officially separate the church and state, while in Northern Europe, church attendance is low, and many Europeans who identify as Protestant have very low religiosity strength of religious devotionfocusing instead on being secularly religious individuals.

From a Weberian point of view, the links among religion, history, and culture in Europe explain the decline of Catholicism, the rise of Protestantism, and now the rise of secularism. Emile Durkheim 1858—1917 focused more on how religion performs a necessary function; it brings people and society together. Durkheim 1976 thus defined a religion as a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things which are set apart and forbidden—beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them.

For example, religious rituals one type of practice unite believers in a religion and separate nonbelievers. The act of communion, or the sharing of the Eucharist by partaking in consecrated bread and wine, is practiced by most Christian denominations. However, the frequency of communion differs extensively, and the ritual is practiced differently based on historical and theological differences among denominations.

Georg Simmel 1858—1918 focused more on the fluidity and permanence of religion and religious life. Simmel 1950 believed that religious and cultural beliefs develop from one another.

Moreover, he asserted that religiosity is an essential element to understand when examining religious institutions and religion.

While individuals may claim to be part of a religious group, Simmel asserted that it was important to consider just how religious the individuals were. In much of Europe, religiosity is low: The decline of religiosity in parts of Europe and its rise in the U.

This framework is distinct from the more Western way of thinking, in that notions of present, past, and future are perceived to be chronologically distorted, and the relationship between cause and effect is paradoxical Wimal, 2007. In his philosophy, existence takes precedence over essence, and any existing object reflects a part of the creator. Therefore, every devoted person is obliged to know themselves as the first step to knowing the creator, which is the ultimate reason for existence.

This Eastern perception of religion is similar to that of Nagarajuna and Buddhism, as they both include the paradoxical elements that are not easily explained by the rationality of Western philosophy. For example, the god, as Mulla Sadra defines it, is beyond definition, description, and delamination, yet it is absolutely simple and unique Burrell, 2013. Culture How researchers define and study culture varies extensively. Geertz 1973building on the work of Kluckhohn 1949defined culture in terms of 11 different aspects: Geertz, 1973p.

The essentialist view regards culture as a concrete and fixed system of symbols and meanings Holiday, 1999.

  1. We rely on schemata almost constantly to help us make sense of the world around us.
  2. It is essential to study the relationships among culture, religion, and communication in the context of globalization. One interpretation could be that Patrick is mad about something at him or someone else.
  3. This framework is distinct from the more Western way of thinking, in that notions of present, past, and future are perceived to be chronologically distorted, and the relationship between cause and effect is paradoxical Wimal, 2007.

An essentialist approach is most prevalent in linguistic studies, in which national culture is closely linked to national language. Regarding culture as a fluid concept, constructionist views of culture focus on how it is performed and negotiated by individuals Piller, 2011. In principle, a non-essentialist approach rejects predefined national cultures and uses culture as a tool to interpret social behavior in certain contexts.

Different approaches to culture influence significantly how it is incorporated into communication studies. Cultural communication views communication as a resource for individuals to produce and regulate culture Philipsen, 2002. Cross-cultural communication typically uses culture as a national boundary. Hofstede 1991 is probably the most popular scholar in this line of research. Culture is thus treated as a theoretical construct to explain communication variations across cultures.

This is also evident in intercultural communication studies, which focus on misunderstandings between individuals from different cultures. Religion, Community, and Culture There is an interplay among religion, community, and culture.

Community is essentially formed by a group of people who share common activities or beliefs based on their mutual affect, loyalty, and personal concerns. Participation in religious institutions is one of the most dominant community engagements worldwide. Religious institutions are 14 discuss the powerful influence of perception on communication known for creating a sense of community by offering various material and social supports for individual followers.

In addition, the role that religious organizations play in communal conflicts is also crucial. As religion deals with the ultimate matters of life, the differences among different religious beliefs are virtually impossible to settle.

  • Exercises Which barrier s to self-perception do you think present the most challenge to you and why?
  • Instead, they actively try to maintain favorable self-perceptions in the face of discriminatory attitudes;
  • Improving Self-Perception Our self-perceptions can and do change;
  • Empathetic listening is challenging because it requires cognitive and emotional investment that goes beyond the learning of a skill set;
  • Which barrier s to perceiving others do you think present the most challenge to you and why?

Although a direct causal relationship between religion and violence is not well supported, religion is, nevertheless, commonly accepted as a potential escalating factor in conflicts. Currently, religious conflicts are on the rise, and they are typically more violent, long-lasting, and difficult to resolve.

  • While individuals may claim to be part of a religious group, Simmel asserted that it was important to consider just how religious the individuals were;
  • Hopefully we will not find ourselves in such an uncertain and dire position, but in these extreme cases and more mundane daily interactions, perception checking can be useful;
  • Cultural influences related to identities and difference can also lead to distorted self-perceptions, especially for people who occupy marginalized or oppressed identities;
  • In particular, the influences of Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, and Georg Simmel are discussed to further understand the complexity of religion.

In such cases, local religious organizations, places facilitating collective actions in the community, are extremely vital, as they can either preach peace or stir up hatred and violence. However, this decline in the authority of the religious institutions in modernized society has not reduced the important role of religion and spirituality as one of the main sources of calm when facing painful experiences such as death, suffering, and loss. When cultural specifications, such as individualism and collectivism, have been attributed to religion, the proposed definitions and functions of religion overlap with definitions of culture.

For example, researchers often combine religious identification Jewish, Christian, Muslim, etc. Religion as Part of Culture in Communication Studies Religion as a part of culture has been linked to numerous communication traits and behaviors. Specifically, religion has been linked with media use and preferences e.

In media and religion scholarship, researchers have shown how religion as a cultural variable has powerful effects on media use, preferences, and gratifications. These studies suggest the significance of religion in health communication and in our health.

  1. Numerous studies have shown that people in groups that are the targets of discrimination may identify with their in-group more because of this threat, which may actually help them maintain psychological well-being. Beware of Stereotypes and Prejudice Stereotypes are sets of beliefs that we develop about groups, which we then apply to individuals from that group.
  2. Listening to people who are different from us is a key component of developing self-knowledge.
  3. These media share religious messages, shape the messages and religious communities, and are constantly changing.
  4. Furthermore, as we grapple with these relationships and terms, we can look to the future and realize that the study of religion, culture, and communication is vast and open to expansion.

Research specifically examining the links between religion and interpersonal communication is not as vast as the research into media, health, and religion.

However, this slowly growing body of research has explored areas such as rituals, self-disclosure Croucher et al. The role of religion in organizations is well studied. Garner and Wargo 2009 further showed that organizational dissent functions differently in churches than in nonreligious organizations. Researchers are increasingly looking at the relationships between religion and intercultural communication.

Researchers have explored how religion affects numerous communication traits and behaviors and have shown how religious communities perceive and enact religious beliefs. Karniel and Lavie-Dinur 2011 showed how religion and culture influence how Palestinian Arabs are represented on Israeli television.

Collectively, the intercultural work examining religion demonstrates the increasing importance of the intersection between religion and culture in communication studies. Croucher and Harris 2012 asserted that the discourse about religion, culture, and communication is still in its infancy, though it continues to grow at a steady pace.

Future Lines of Inquiry Research into the links among religion, culture, and communication has shown the vast complexities of these terms. Work should continue to define these terms with a particular emphasis on mediation, closely consider these terms in a global context, focus on how intergroup dynamics influence this relationship, and expand research into non-Christian religious cultures.

Martin-Barbero 1993 asserted that there should be a shift from media to mediations as multiple opposing forces meet in communication. Religions have relied on mediations through various media to communicate their messages oral stories, print media, radio, television, internet, etc. These media share religious messages, shape the messages and religious communities, and are constantly changing.

Thus, the very meanings of religion, culture, and communication are transitioning as societies morph into more digitally mediated societies. Research should continue to explore the effects of digital mediation on our conceptualizations of religion, culture, 14 discuss the powerful influence of perception on communication communication.

Closely linked to mediation is the need to continue extending our focus on the influence of globalization on religion, culture, and communication. It is essential to study the relationships among culture, religion, and communication in the context of globalization. In addition to trading goods and services, people are increasingly sharing ideas, values, and beliefs in the modern world. While religion represents an old way of life, globalization challenges traditional meaning systems and is often perceived as a threat to religion.

For instance, Marx and Weber both asserted that modernization was incompatible with tradition. But, in contrast, globalization could facilitate religious freedom by spreading the idea of freedom worldwide. Thus, future work needs to consider the influence of globalization to fully grasp the interrelationships among religion, culture, and communication in the world. A review of the present definitions of religion in communication research reveals that communication scholars approach religion as a holistic, total, and unique institution or notion, studied from the viewpoint of different communication fields such as health, intercultural, interpersonal, organizational communication, and so on.

However, this approach to communication undermines the function of a religion as a culture and also does not consider the possible differences between religious cultures.

Religion, Culture, and Communication

For example, religious cultures differ in their levels of individualism and collectivism. Thus, localization is one area of further research for religion communication studies. This line of study best fits in the domain of intergroup communication.