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A detailed synopsis of the guidance of young children from absorption to purposeful response

In summary Montessori said to be human is to have a family and develop the children in that family through education and socialization.

Anticipatory Guidance

How does it differ from other species? A human being, according to Montessori is different from other species because of the development process in which a human child grows. Montessori would argue that the intellectual ability for humans to think critically in each stage of development allows for the needs and desires of humans to be more advanced than that of an animal who lives to survive instead of transform society MM, 1964.

Montessori also described the needs of humans to be physical and spiritual needs. The physical needs of human beings are: The spiritual needs of human beings are: It is the spiritual needs of human beings that allow for the development of language, thought, critical thinking and problem solving skills and the ability to live as a productive and meaningful member of society.

Montessori would likely say that the difference between other species and human beings is the ability to think, speak and interact with society MM, 1964.

A detailed synopsis of the guidance of young children from absorption to purposeful response

What are the limits of human potential? A child that learns to manipulate their environment and develop knowledge to critically analyze and learn from that manipulation makes a person a life-long learner in society. At a time when special needs children were thought to have no potential or place in society, Montessori disagreed.

She thought that these children could learn and could become positive contributing members of society through her teaching theories. The theories of the time were that of Darwin who determined that people had fixed intelligences and predetermined destinies.

The experiences a child has can be limitless if they are made available to them, making human potential limitless. Theory of Learning What is learning?

Learning, according to Montessori, comes from manipulation of the environment and the training of the senses. She claims that children will absorb information from the environment that they are in. Other children will be working individually or with partners or in groups of three or four….

And the room is full of pleasant chatter, the cheerful buzz of meaningful, interesting work. It is this relaxed and motivating environment that Montessori thought children learned. Learning in a Montessori classroom is that of student discovery. The child is the teacher and utilizes the structured materials to enhance learning. Montessori said that it is through these natural mistakes that children learn how to critically analyze and problem solve within the environment without relying on others to solve the problem for them.

The teacher avoids pointing out mistakes in favor of self-evaluation by each child. It is to experience through discovery, through manipulation, through critical thinking, through mistakes and through problem solving skills. In the process of learning children can gain self-esteem and generalization skills prior to the first grade that will prepare them to become a life-long learner. How are skills and knowledge acquired? Learning, according to Montessori comes from reality based, structured and prepared environments.

Gradual, sequential learning at this stage can be easy, fun, and important to the developing child. As the sensitive periods show, these early years are when the child learns with the greatest ease and is most responsive to particular phases of learning.

Montessori believed that preschool education for children under the age of six was necessary and that children learned from having the freedom to explore and manipulate the environment. She believed that children learned through interacting with their peers and with the specifically designed materials available within the Montessori school.

The environment must be structured and organized. All materials in the Montessori environment must have a specific place, be structured, prepared, aesthetically pleasing and child sized. It must be child-sized so that the child can access and manipulate the environment. They were auto-instructional in that they did not require a teacher to show the children how to use the materials, the children were able to play with the tool and gain knowledge from it on their own.

The teacher was simply there as an observer and a facilitator.

Montessori allowed the children the freedom to choose what materials they wanted to work with as well as who they wanted to work with. There is much that a child can teach another child more easily than a teacher can. It is not uncommon in a Montessori classroom to see two children working together on an activity one day, and then individually the next. Mistakes were a natural part of the learning process according to Montessori. She believed that when children work with the environment they will naturally make mistakes and often those mistakes are a critical part of the learning process.

It is the repetition of the activity that the child will gain mastery and learn the concept. An example of a Montessori instructional strategy in which the child is learning the difference between the colors red and blue is as follows: The association of the sensory perception with the name. For example, we present to the child, two colours, red and blue.

Recognition of the object corresponding to the name. The remembering of the name corresponding to the object. It is through this direct method as well as a detailed synopsis of the guidance of young children from absorption to purposeful response indirect method of Montessori teaching that children learn concepts from concrete to abstract.

Montessori also believed that movement was a critical part of the learning process for children. It is with this movement and manipulation of the environment that the child actively participates in learning and is motivated to do so because the child is able to choose items to fulfill their own needs. Skills and knowledge are acquired through proper environments, socialization, and the ability to construct knowledge.

In order to acquire these skills children must be allowed to construct their own knowledge by analyzing their own experiences and mistakes. Theory of Transmission Who is to teach? What will the curriculum be? The role of teacher is crucial to the Montessori Method. She thought that home was an extension of school and learning needs to take place in both environments.

With that said both the parent and the school teacher must teach. The school teacher is an integral part of the home and school environment. Montessori was very scientific in her research and methods and would expect her teachers to be well versed in them also. The role of the teacher is a shared responsibility of the parent, specifically the mother, and the school teacher. The Montessori methods plays a very specific role. Children in the Montessori school guide their own learning through work with the prepared environment.

The children manipulate materials and increase knowledge through work. The role of the teacher is to observe the children at work and interject only when necessary.

Montessori tried to deemphasize the role of the teacher in the classroom so that unlike a regular classroom the teacher is to take a back seat and observe student learning; but the role of the teacher is still very significant because through this observation the teacher is able to push the student to higher levels of thinking. Montessori considered the teacher the keeper of the school, which is her first consideration.

Montessori also had strong opinions on how a teacher should look in her classroom: It is imperative in a Montessori classroom that the teacher takes the role of the observer. The directress of a Montessori classroom is an observer of student behavior.

She watches the children manipulate the materials and only interjects when necessary.

The third quality of the lesson is its objectivity. The lesson must be presented in such a way that the personality of the teacher shall disappear.

  1. Parents also could assist with the socialization process of young children by actively participating in the schooling process. Expert-reviewed information summary about constipation gastrointestinal complications the evidence and application to practice related to children may differ.
  2. The school teacher is an integral part of the home and school environment. What will the curriculum be?
  3. This individualistic society that Montessori would consider ideal would say that consensus should only be achieved when it comes to personal gains, unfortunately people have different and individual goals to achieve and therefore consensus will only occur while working towards achieving those goals.

There shall remain in evidence only the object to which she wishes to call the attention of the child AM, 108. And she must take great care not to offend the principles of liberty MM, 107-109. The student will show their knowledge growth by interacting with more stimulating materials in a more complex way.

The teacher in a Montessori classroom is supposed to only interject when the child needs further stimulation or the teacher observes the need for the child to move onto more complex materials and concepts. The teacher is to show the child how to work with the materials and then allow them to work independently and with others. It is with the observation and repetition of the exercises that the child learns. The teacher must make sure that they do not insist on repeating lessons and they do not make the child feel as if they have made a mistake.

According to Montessori, it is through mistakes that we learn. It is by allowing the child to manipulate the structured and prepared environment that students will learn. She thought that children should master the following concepts through experiences with her structured and prepared materials: Sensory education, language, writing and reading, arithmetic, imagination, and fantasy, art and music, physical education and nature.

Vocabulary in a Montessori school takes place daily and is encouraged through self-expression, lessons, and freedom of choice. The acquisition of language lays the foundation for writing and reading education.

Montessori believed that writing precedes reading; that children begin to write without instruction through drawing and play. Knowledge of arithmetic, according to Montessori is gained through repetitive use of materials such as sandpaper numbers, rods, and spindle boxes so that children can understand the concrete knowledge of numbers before gaining knowledge of the abstract meaning of numbers and math concepts.

Montessori thought that if imagination was based in truth, it was a great way for children to experience the real world through creativity Hainstock, 1997. Montessori had a specific, detail and purposeful method to aid children in gaining knowledge. Montessori was very precise when it came to how a teacher was to impart knowledge on a student, such as observing student behavior with the prepared materials and only interjecting when necessary to push the student to the next level.

Related terms:

The curriculum was meant to teach Sensory education, language, writing and reading, arithmetic, imagination, and fantasy, art and music, physical education and nature. Theory of Society What is Society? What institutions are involved in the educational process? She opened her first school, Casa dei Bambini, in Rome in 1907.

During that time period, the role of the child was to be seen and not heard and adults had all the power. However, Montessori believed that children had a higher intelligence than the adult. Hainstock, 1997 It was also a time period where children before the age of 6 were not formally educated.

  • Montessori was an iconic figure in the feminist movement in Italy at the time;
  • What is your understanding?