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A history of cyprus a mediterranean country

Prehistoric Cyprus Cypriot cult image. Museum zu Allerheiligen Cyprus was settled by humans in the Paleolithic period known as the stone age who coexisted with various dwarf animal species, such as dwarf elephants Elephas cypriotes and pygmy hippos Hippopotamus minor well into the Holocene. There are claims of an association of this fauna with artifacts of Epipalaeolithic foragers at Aetokremnos near Limassol on the southern coast of Cyprus. The first settlers were agriculturalists of the so-called PPNB pre-pottery Neolithic B era, but did not yet produce pottery aceramic Neolithic.

The dog, sheep, goats and possibly cattle and pigs were introduced, as well as numerous wild animals such as foxes Vulpes vulpes and Persian fallow deer Dama mesopotamica that were previously unknown on the island. The PPNB settlers built round houses with floors made of terrazzo of burned lime e.

Culture Name

KastrosShillourokambos and cultivated einkorn and emmer. Pigs, sheep, goat and cattle were kept but remained, for the most part, behaviourally wild. Evidence of cattle such as that attested at Shillourokambos is rare, and when they apparently died out in the course of the 8th millennium they were not re-introduced until the ceramic Neolithic. In the 6th millennium BC, the aceramic Khirokitia culture was characterised by roundhousesstone vessels and an economy based on sheep, goats and pigs.

Cattle were unknown, and Persian fallow deer were hunted. This was followed by the ceramic Sotira phase.

The Eneolithic era is characterised by stone figurines with spread arms. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old, putting them in the Stone Age.

They are said to show the sophistication of early settlers, and their heightened appreciation for the environment. Systematic copper mining began, and this resource was widely traded. Mycenaean Greeks were undoubtedly inhabiting Cyprus from the late stage of the Bronze Age, while the island's Greek name is already attested from the 15th century BC in the Linear B script.

Most scholars believe it was used for a native Cypriot language Eteocypriot that survived until the 4th century BC, but the actual proofs for this are scant, as the tablets still have not been completely deciphered. Cities such as Enkomi were rebuilt on a rectangular grid plan, where the town gates correspond to the grid axes and numerous grand buildings front the street system or newly founded. Great official buildings constructed from ashlar masonry point to increased social hierarchisation and control.

Some of these buildings contain facilities for processing and storing olive a history of cyprus a mediterranean countrysuch as Maroni -Vournes and Building X at Kalavassos -Ayios Dhimitrios. A Sanctuary with a horned altar constructed from ashlar masonry has been found at Myrtou-Pigadhes, other temples have been located at Enkomi, Kition and Kouklia Palaepaphos.

  • The Impact of Diverse Nationalism on a State, 1978;
  • The Wedding as Symbolic Struggle, 1996;
  • These attempts at proving a group's purity and authenticity often were accompanied by attempts to prove the impurity and mixed culture and blood of the other community in order to deny those people an identity and even existence as political actors who could voice demands.

Both the regular layout of the cities and the new masonry techniques find their closest parallels in Syria, especially in Ugarit modern Ras Shamra. Rectangular corbelled tombs point to close contacts with Syria and Palestine as well. Copper ingots shaped like oxhides have been recovered from shipwrecks such as at Ulu BurunIria and Cape Gelidonya which attest to the widespread metal trade.

Weights in the shape of animals found in Enkomi and Kalavassos follow the Syro-Palestinian, Mesopotamian, Hittite and Aegean standards and thus attest to the wide-ranging trade as well.

Late Bronze Age Cyprus was a part of the Hittite empire but was a client state and as such was not invaded but rather merely part of the empire by association and governed by the ruling kings of Ugarit. New architectural features include cyclopean wallsfound on the Greek mainland, as well and a certain type of rectangular stepped capitals, endemic on A history of cyprus a mediterranean country.

Chamber tombs are given up in favour of shaft graves. Large amounts of IIIC: While this was formerly interpreted as evidence of an invasion ' Sea Peoples 'this is seen more and more as an indigenous development, triggered by increasing trade relations with Cyprus and Crete. Another wave of Greek settlement is believed to have taken place in the following century LCIIIB, 1100—1050indicated, among other things, by a new type of graves long dromoi and Mycenaean influences in pottery decoration.

Cypriot city kingdoms[ edit ] Most authors claim that the Cypriot city kingdoms, first described in written sources in the 8th century BC were already founded in the 11th century BC. Other scholars see a slow process of increasing social complexity between the 12th and the 8th centuries, based on a network of chiefdoms.

In the 8th century geometric period the number of settlements increases sharply and monumental tombs, like the 'Royal' tombs of Salamis appear for the first time. This could be a better indication for the appearance of the Cypriot kingdoms. It is divided into the Geometric 1050—700and Archaic 700—525 periods. Foundations myths documented by classical authors connect the foundation of numerous Cypriot towns with immigrant Greek heroes in the wake of the Trojan war.

For example, Teucerbrother of Aias was supposed to have founded Salamisand the Arcadian Agapenor of Tegea to have replaced the native ruler Kinyras and to have founded Paphos.

In the 11th century tomb 49 from Palaepaphos-Skales three bronze obeloi with inscriptions in Cypriot syllabic script have been found, one of which bears the name of Opheltas. This is first indication of the use of Greek language on the island. Cremation as a burial rite is seen as a Greek introduction as well. The shaft grave contained two bronze rod tripod stands, the remains of a shield and a golden sceptre as well.

Formerly seen as the Royal grave of first Argive founders of Kourion, it is now interpreted as the tomb of a native Cypriote or a Phoenician prince.

Phoenicians[ edit ] In the 8th century, several Phoenician colonies were founded, like Kart-Hadasht[ citation needed ] 'New Town'present day Larnaca and Salamis. Similar jar burials have been found in cemeteries in Kourion-Kaloriziki and Palaepaphos-Skales near Kouklia.

In Skales, many Levantine imports and Cypriote imitations of Levantine forms have been found and point to a Phoenician expansion even before the end of the 11th century. The first written source shows Cyprus under Assyrian rule. The former is supposedly the Assyrian name of the island, while some authors take the latter to mean Greece the Islands of the Danaoi. There are other inscriptions referring to Ia' in Sargon's palace at Khorsabad. A Persian palace has been excavated in the territory of Marion on the North coast near Soli.

The inhabitants took part in the Ionian rising. At the beginning of the 4th century BC, Euagoras I, King of Salamis, took control of the whole island and tried to gain independence from Persia. Another uprising took place in 350 but was crushed by Artaxerxes in 344.

Alternative Names

In 321 four Cypriot kings sided with Ptolemy I and defended the island against Antigonos. It was ruled by a governor from Egypt and sometimes formed a minor Ptolemaic kingdom during the power-struggles of the 2nd and 1st centuries. Strong commercial relationships with Athens and Alexandriatwo of the most important commercial centres of antiquity, developed.

Full Hellenisation only took place under Ptolemaic rule. Phoenician and native Cypriot traits disappeared, together with the old Cypriot syllabic script. A number of cities were founded during this time, e.

Arsinoe that was founded between old and new Paphos by Ptolemy II. After the reforms of Diocletian it was placed under the control of the Consularis Oriens and governed by a proconsul. Christianisation[ edit ] The apostle Paul is reported to have converted the people of Cyprus to Christianity.

During the 5th century AD, the church of Cyprus achieved its independence from the Patriarch of Antioch at the Council of Ephesus in 431. After the division of the Roman Empire into an eastern half and a western half, Cyprus came under the rule of Byzantium. At that time, its bishopwhile still subject to the Churchwas made autocephalous by the Council of Ephesus.

The Arabs invaded Cyprus in force in the 650s, but in 688, the emperor Justinian II and the caliph Abd al-Malik reached an unprecedented agreement. For the next 300 years, Cyprus was ruled jointly by both the Arabs and the Byzantines as a condominiumdespite the nearly constant warfare between the two parties on the mainland.

The Byzantines a history of cyprus a mediterranean country control over the island for short periods thereafter, but the status quo was always restored. This period lasted until the year 965, when Niketas Chalkoutzes conquered the island for a resurgent Byzantium. In 1185, the last Byzantine governor of Cyprus, Isaac Comnenus of Cyprus from a minor line of the Imperial house, rose in rebellion and attempted to seize the throne. His attempted coup was unsuccessful, but Comnenus was able to retain control of the island.

The Emperor had an agreement with the sultan of Egypt to close Cypriot harbours to the Crusaders. The second Crusades[ edit ] In the 12th century AD the island became a target of the crusaders. Richard the Lionheart landed in Limassol on 1 June 1191 in search of his sister and his bride Berengariawhose ship had become separated from the fleet in a storm.

Richard's army landed when Isaac refused to return the hostages Richard's sister, his bride, and several shipwrecked soldiersand forced Isaac to flee from Limassol. He eventually surrendered, conceding control of the island to the King of England. Richard married Berengaria in Limassol on 12 May 1192. The crusader fleet continued to St. Jean d'Acre Syria on 5 June. The army of Richard the Lionheart continued to occupy Cyprus and raised taxes.

He sold the island to the Knights Templar. Soon after that, the French Lusignans occupied the island, establishing the Kingdom of Cyprus.

History of Cyprus

They declared Latin the official language, later replacing it with French; much later, Greek was recognized as a second official language. In 1196, the Latin Church was established, and the Orthodox Cypriot Church experienced a series of religious persecutions. Maronites settled on Cyprus during the crusades and still maintain some villages in the North.

  • In the 4th century BC Alexander the Great claimed the island, which remained part of the Greek-Egyptian kingdom until 30 BC, when the Romans arrived and Cyprus became a senatorial province;
  • Cyprus is an island in the eastern Mediterranean that was divided into a Greek southern side and a Turkish northern side after a coup instigated by the dictatorship ruling Greece in 1974 and a subsequent Turkish military offensive;
  • It is divided into the Geometric 1050—700 , and Archaic 700—525 periods;
  • While there may be no evidence to prove this particular romantic tale, the remains of numerous ancient civilisations are littered across the island;
  • This period lasted until the year 965, when Niketas Chalkoutzes conquered the island for a resurgent Byzantium.

Kingdom of Cyprus[ edit ].