Homeworks academic service


An introduction to the history of korea a country in asia

Hanyang now Seoul was made the capital. The Confucian ethical system was officially adopted and replaced Buddhism, which had become corrupt. Many Confucian institutions of learning were set up. Members of the yangban devoted themselves to the study of Neo-Confucian orthodoxy and, through civil service examinations, held public offices, their sole profession.

Early yangban society flourished intellectually and culturally, especially during the reign of Sejong the Great, the fourth monarch. With the technique of movable-type printingdeveloped in Korea in 1234, many publications were produced in such fields as medicine, astronomy, geography, history, and agriculture. In 1443 the Korean phonetic alphabet, Hangul Korean: Camille Harang In the reign of Sejo, the seventh monarch, a powerful centralized and yangban-oriented government structure emerged.

South Korea

The country was divided into eight administrative provinces, and all officials were appointed by the central government. Laws were codified, and the highest administrative body was the State Council. Late in the 15th century Korean scholars made original contributions to the theoretical refinement of Confucianism. In the mid-16th century many of these scholars were recruited into government service.

Idealistic in orientation, they criticized the bureaucratic establishment and recommended drastic measures for the realization of Confucian ideals.

Foreign invasions In 1592 Toyotomi Hideyoshithe Japanese military leader who had just reunified Japan, sent a large force to Korea in an alleged attempt to invade China. The Korean land forces suffered a series of defeats, but Korean naval forces, led by Adm.

  1. Taking advantage of a wartime business boom, Japan took leaps forward as a capitalist country. The communists, not to lose face, were determined to have all prisoners back.
  2. Pottery with a simple blue and white glaze was produced in large quantities for popular consumption. The rebels laid down their arms voluntarily to defuse the threat, but the Sino-Japanese War broke out in July 1894.
  3. A section of the Korean army led by deposed officials and Confucian scholars took up arms against the Japanese in the southern provinces following the 1905 treaty. From them several mountain ranges branch off with a northeast-southwest orientation.
  4. It brought together all Korean exiles and established an efficient liaison with leaders inside Korea.

Yi Sun-shinsecured full control of the sea. The national crisis brought people of almost all ranks, including Buddhist monks, to volunteer in fighting the Japanese. Ming China also dispatched troops to aid Korea.

After one year the Japanese were forced to retreat, although another invasion followed in 1597. The war left most of Korea in ruins. Palaces, public buildings, and private homes were burned, and many cultural treasures were lost or destroyed. Yi Sun-shinYi Sun-shin, statue in Seoul. Ming and Korean punitive attacks on Manchu strongholds in 1619 were beaten back, and in 1627 the Manchu overran northern Korea.

In 1636 the Manchu captured Seoul and wrested an unconditional surrender from the king. The Manchu then overthrew the Ming and in 1644 established the Qing dynasty ; the tribute that Korea had paid to the Ming was switched to the Qing. Silhak and popular culture A series of significant changes in Korea began in the mid-17th century and made a great impact on virtually every sector of Korean society in the 18th century. In agriculture, rice transplantation became popular, and irrigation systems were improved.

Advances in farming resulted in dramatic increases in agricultural production and raised the standard of living for peasants. With the cultivation of such special crops as tobacco and ginseng, commerce and trade developed apace. The government started minting coins and collecting farm rent in cash. Markets were held in many places across the country.

  • But in late 2016, she was implicated in a scandal involving corruption, bribery and influence peddling, and the National Assembly passed an impeachment motion against her that December;
  • But the oppressive and exploitative Japanese colonial policy remained ruthless, though using less conspicuous methods.

In the realm of scholarship, attention shifted from speculative theorizing to matters of practical relevance—the needs of society and state. They fell into four major groups.

One group advocated comprehensive administrative reform, calling upon the government to rationalize the systems of civil service examination, education, taxation, and land administration. Another group stressed the need to foster commerce, industry, and technology. A third conducted critical examinations of the Confucian classics, while the fourth focused on the study of Korean history, geography, and language.

Comparable new trends appeared in arts and letters.

  1. The war left most of Korea in ruins.
  2. Taking advantage of a wartime business boom, Japan took leaps forward as a capitalist country.
  3. In 1656 a Dutch merchant ship went aground off the southern shore of Cheju Island , and its 36 surviving crewmen were taken to Seoul for detention.
  4. In addition the U. During persecutions in 1801, 1839, and 1866, scholar-converts were either put to death or forced to apostatize; foreign missionaries were ferreted out and beheaded.

Popular literary and artistic works came into fashion—a marked change from the tradition of catering exclusively to the upper class. The new works not only were written in the easy-to-read Hangul but also gave frank expression to popular discontent.

Many artists specialized in pictures of blacksmiths at work, peasants in the field, traditional wrestling matches, and rural landscapes. Pottery with a simple blue and white glaze was produced in large quantities for popular consumption. The introduction of Roman Catholicism Significant numbers of Europeans began to arrive in East Asia in the mid-16th century. In 1656 a Dutch merchant ship went aground off the southern shore of Cheju Islandand its 36 surviving crewmen were taken to Seoul for detention.

Thirteen years later Hendrik Hamel and seven others escaped and returned home. Hamel wrote an account of his experiences—the first book on Korea published in Europe. Along with the European merchants came Roman Catholic priests. Korean envoys to China in the 16th century brought back with them a world atlas and scientific instruments made by the priests, as well as literature on science and Christianity. Some silhak scholars had converted to Catholicism by the late 18th century, even before missionaries reached Korea.

Most of the early converts were scholars of aristocratic background.

  • Members of the yangban devoted themselves to the study of Neo-Confucian orthodoxy and, through civil service examinations, held public offices, their sole profession;
  • The government began to suppress Catholicism in the belief that it defied the existing sacrosanct mores of Confucianism;
  • Taegu , on the east coast, is the driest area, while the southern coast is the wettest; southern Cheju Island receives more than 70 inches 1,800 mm annually;
  • Their request, however, received no answer.

Commoners were later attracted to Catholicism, finding hope in the Christian doctrine of equality of all people before God and a new source of solace in the Christian belief in life after death. Catholicism spread from Seoul to the provinces steadily. The incompatibility of Catholicism with Confucianism posed a serious problem. The two could not compromise on the great importance Confucianism attached to reverence for ancestors sometimes termed ancestor worshipwhich Catholicism rejected as flagrant idolatry.

The government began to suppress Catholicism in the belief that it defied the existing sacrosanct mores of Confucianism. During persecutions in 1801, 1839, and 1866, scholar-converts were either put to death or forced to apostatize; foreign missionaries were ferreted out and beheaded.

South Korea country profile

But rank-and-file Catholics rallied around the church, and it was precariously maintained. In 1831 the Holy See set up a Korean parish, and French priests smuggled themselves into the country to engage in clandestine proselytism. The advent of silhak, popular arts, and Roman Catholicism in the 17th and 18th centuries indicates a modern Korea in the making. But in the 19th century boy kings came to the throne in succession, and their maternal relatives seized power and plunged the government into a state of chaos.

One peasant uprising followed another in the provinces, and the whole nation seethed with popular discontent and resentment. Many peasants sought refuge in religion.

It had much in common with traditional animism and appealed to the peasantry. He put into force bold political reforms, such as faction-free recruitment of officials and the closing of many private Confucian academies. Koreans repulsed two attacks by French warships in 1866. In 1871 an American flotilla came to obtain a shipwreck convention but, encountering Korean resistance, left.

The Stone Age

Japan repeatedly made futile attempts to establish diplomatic relations with Korea. The Japanese militarists thereupon raised an outcry for a war of conquest on Korea. He relinquished his power in 1873 in favour of Kojong. Japan, which had been watching developments in Korea, dispatched a squadron of warships an introduction to the history of korea a country in asia pressured Korea to sign a treaty of commerce and friendship.

The growing Japanese presence in Korea was disturbing to the rulers of Qing China. Thus began a period of aggressive Chinese interference in Korean affairs. China forced Korea to sign a trade agreement that heavily favoured Chinese merchants.

Korea signed a treaty of commerce and friendship with the United States 1882 through the good offices of China. Similar treaties with the United KingdomGermanyRussiaand France followed, and foreign missions were established in Seoul. Once the doors were opened, a modernization movement began. Students and officials were sent to Japan and China; Western-style schools and newspapers were founded.

The government, however, could not proceed with a consistent policy of modernization, for the king was mentally incompetent and the ruling class was divided into radicals and moderates. Chinese troops, however, moved in and overthrew their three-day-old regime. The Tonghak Uprising and government reform Government expenditures greatly increased, largely because of appropriations for machinery imports and government reorganization, and the difficult financial situation was aggravated by obligations to pay reparations to Japan.

Heavier tax levies were imposed on peasants, who provided the bulk of government revenue. The import of such necessities as cotton textiles upset the traditional self-sufficiency of the farming community.

Furthermore, usurious loans by Japanese rice dealers contributed to reducing the peasantry to abject poverty. Its followers staged large-scale demonstrations calling for an end to injustice. Foreign intervention seemed the last resort open to the rulers, and Chinese troops soon moved in at the request of the government.

  • Advances in farming resulted in dramatic increases in agricultural production and raised the standard of living for peasants;
  • It soon resumed, however, in order to meet the increased needs of the Japanese military in its war against China, which began in 1931.

Simultaneously, Japan, without invitation, dispatched a large military contingentand the two foreign powers were in sharp and sudden confrontation. The rebels laid down their arms voluntarily to defuse the threat, but the Sino-Japanese War broke out in July 1894. Japan emerged victorious, and the two belligerents signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki in April 1895, which recognized Japanese hegemony in Korea.

At the instigation of the Japanese, the Korean government initiated a wide range of reforms during the war. It set up a Council of Deliberations to undertake reforms, issued pertinent decrees, and formed Western-style institutions and a cabinet. Civil service examinations were discontinued, and such social practices as class discrimination were abolished.

Public reaction to the reforms was unfavourable. The government realized that old customs and institutions would die hard and that reform would take more than mere decrees and imitation of things Western. At the same time, encouraged by Russia, the Korean government began to take an anti-Japanese course.

The Japanese thereupon engineered the assassination of Queen Min October 1895the suspected mastermind behind the anti-Japanese stance. Fearing for his own life, King Kojong took refuge in the Russian legation, where he granted such concessions as mining and lumbering franchises to Russia and other powers. The Korean government at first declared neutrality, but under Japanese pressure it signed an agreement allowing Japan to use much of its territory for military operations against the Russians.

Japan was the victor, and the resulting Treaty of Portsmouth September 1905signed through the mediation of the United States, granted Japan undisputed supremacy in Korea. Its hand thus strengthened, Japan forced the Korean emperor into signing a treaty that made Korea a Japanese protectorate November 1905.

Theodore Roosevelt centre with peace envoys from Russia and Japan at the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905.