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An introduction to the issue of a depressive disorder a whole body illness

Major Depressive Disorder (Clinical Depression)

These include bereavement, divorce, work issues, relationships with friends and family, financial problems, medical concerns, or acute stress. Those with less successful coping strategies, or previous life trauma are more suceptible.

Having a first-degree relatives with depression increases the risk. These include corticosteroids, some beta-blockersinterferon, and other prescription drugs. Abuse of recreational drugs: Abuse of alcohol, amphetamines, and other drugs are strongly linked to depression.

A past head injury. Having had one episode of major depression: This increases the risk of a subsequent one. These and other chronic conditions, such as diabeteschronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease make depression more likely.

What is depression and what can I do about it?

Treatment Depression is a treatable mental illness. There are three components to the management of depression: Support, ranging from discussing practical solutions and contributing stresses, to educating family members. Psychotherapy, also known as talking therapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy CBT. Drug treatment, specifically antidepressants.

Psychotherapy Psychological or talking therapies for depression include cognitive-behavioral therapy CBTinterpersonal psychotherapy, and problem-solving treatment.

In mild cases of depression, psychotherapies are the first option for treatment; in moderate and severe cases, they may be used alongside other treatment. CBT and interpersonal therapy are the two main types of psychotherapy used in depression.

  • Mother, wife, employee, friend, healer, caregiver, and the list goes on;
  • SSRIs and SNRIs are more popular than the older classes of antidepressants, such as tricyclics—named for their chemical structure—and monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOIs because they tend to have fewer side effects;
  • Many women also face additional stresses of work and home responsibilities, single parenthood and caring for children and aging parents, abuse, poverty, and relationship strains;
  • Women feel anxious and scared; men feel guarded Women blame themselves for the depression; men blame others Women commonly feel sad, worthless, and apathetic when depressed; men tend to feel irritable and angry Women are more likely to avoid conflicts when depressed; men are more likely to create conflicts Women turn to food and friends to self-medicate; men turn to alcohol, TV, sex, or sports to self-medicate Women feel lethargic and nervous; men feel agitated and restless Women easily talk about their feelings of self-doubt and despair; men hide feelings of self-doubt and despair-considering it a sign of weakness What Causes Depression in Women?
  • However, within these types there are variations in the number of symptoms as well as their severity and persistence.

CBT may be delivered in individual sessions with a therapist, face-to-face, in groups, or over the telephone. Some recent studies suggest that CBT may be delivered effectively through a computer Interpersonal therapy helps patients to identify emotional problems that affect relationships and communication, and how these, in turn, affect mood and can be changed. Antidepressant medications Antidepressants are drugs available on prescription from a doctor.

Drugs come into use for moderate to severe depression, but are not recommended for children, and will be prescribed only with caution for adolescents.

A number of classes of medication are available in the treatment of depression: The drugs should be continued as prescribed by the doctor, even after symptoms have improved, to prevent relapse. A warning from the Food and Drug Administration FDA says that "antidepressant medications may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some children, teenagers, and young adults within the first few months of treatment. Exercise and other therapies Aerobic exercise may help against mild depression since it raises endorphin levels and stimulates the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is related to mood.

Brain stimulation therapies - including electroconvulsive therapy - are also used in depression.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation sends magnetic pulses to the brain and may be effective in major depressive disorder. Electroconvulsive therapy Severe cases of depression that have not responded to drug treatment may benefit from electroconvulsive therapy ECT ; this is particularly effective for psychotic depression. Types Unipolar and bipolar depression If the predominant feature is a depressed mood, it is called unipolar depression. However, if it is characterized by both manic and depressive episodes separated by periods of normal mood, it is referred to as bipolar disorder previously called manic depression.


Unipolar depression can involve anxiety and other symptoms - but no manic episodes. However, research shows that for around 40 percent of the time, individuals with bipolar disorder are depressed, making the two conditions difficult to distinguish. Major depressive disorder with psychotic features This condition is characterized by depression accompanied by psychosis.

  1. However, there are several factors that can increase the risk of developing the condition.
  2. American Family Physician, 1999; 60 3. CBT may be delivered in individual sessions with a therapist, face-to-face, in groups, or over the telephone.
  3. But for some teens, the lows are more than just temporary feelings — they're a symptom of depression.
  4. John's Wort in the treatment of mild or minor depression. However, for major depression or for certain people, psychotherapy may not be enough.
  5. If your doctor suspects you may be suffering from depression, he or she will refer you to a mental health specialist who can formally diagnose your condition and make recommendations for treatment.

Psychosis can involve delusions - false beliefs and detachment from reality, or hallucinations - sensing things that do not exist. Postpartum depression Women often experience "baby blues" with a newborn, but postpartum depression - also known as postnatal depression - is more severe. Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern Previously called seasonal affective disorder SADthis condition is related to the reduced daylight of winter - the depression occurs during this season but lifts for the rest of the year and in response to light therapy.

  • They can cause several side effects, including weight gain and sleepiness;
  • Because of the widespread interest in St;
  • These antidepressants are frequently prescribed;
  • The most common side effects of tricyclic antidepressants, and ways to deal with them, are:

Countries with long or severe winters seem to be affected more by this condition.