Homeworks academic service


Cancer respiratory and cardiovascular diseases mortality rates among african americans and hispanics

An erratum has been published for this report. To view the erratum, please click here. Cunningham, ScD1; Janet B. Eke, PhD1; Wayne H. This might help explain disparities in mortality via chronic disease—related behaviors, health-related quality of life, and health care utilization.

Although the overall life expectancy at birth has increased for both blacks and whites and the gap between these populations has narrowed, disparities in life expectancy and the leading causes of death for blacks compared with whites in the United States remain substantial. Understanding how factors that influence these disparities vary across the life span might enhance the targeting of appropriate interventions.

Trends during 1999—2015 in mortality rates for the leading causes of death were examined by black and white race and age group.

  • Age-specific prevalences of selected self-reported chronic diseases, related health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, and health care utilization practices were also examined and compared by race and age group;
  • In 2014, life expectancy at birth was 75;
  • Although significant strides have been made in the United States in the last 17 years, disparities still exist;
  • Blacks were more likely to report not being able to see a doctor because of cost, even though, across age groups, the percentages of blacks and whites who reported having a personal doctor or health care provider were approximately equal.

Multiple 2014 and 2015 national data sources were analyzed to compare blacks with whites in selected age groups by sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, use of health services, and chronic conditions.

During 1999—2015, age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly in both populations, with rates declining more sharply among blacks for most leading causes of death. Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice: To continue to reduce the gap in health disparities, these findings suggest an ongoing need for universal and targeted interventions that address the leading causes of deaths among blacks especially cardiovascular disease and cancer and their risk factors across the life span and create equal opportunities for health.

In 2014, life expectancy at birth was 75. Despite this improvement, disparities in the leading causes of deaths for blacks compared with whites are pronounced by early and middle adulthood, especially deaths from homicide and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes 2,3.

In addition, blacks have the highest death rate and shorter survival rate for all cancers combined compared with whites in the United States 4. Although many of these chronic conditions are usually associated with adulthood, the initial stages of some chronic conditions arise early in life 5. The analyses presented in this report used recent mortality and two national surveillance data sets to compare rates for the leading causes of death and the prevalences of chronic diseases, related health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, and health care utilization practices for blacks compared with whites by age group to identify disparities across the life span; such information could facilitate targeted interventions.

In addition, age-specific sociodemographic characteristics and death rates were examined and compared by race and age group. Age-specific prevalences of selected self-reported chronic diseases, related health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, and health care utilization practices were also examined and compared by race and age group. Age-adjusted death rates also were obtained for all ages combined, including children.

Selected socioeconomic characteristics U. Self-reported information on chronic diseases, health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, and health care utilization practices were obtained from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System BRFSSwhich is an annual state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone cell phone and landline survey of the noninstitutionalized U.

Self-reported health behaviors among all respondents included current cigarette smoking having smoked at least 100 cigarettes in the lifetime and smoking daily or somedayslack of leisure-time physical activity in the past 30 days, and binge drinking five or more drinks for men, or four or more drinks for women on any occasion in the past 30 days.

Weight status indicators included having a normal body weight body mass index of 18. Health care access and utilization indicators included having a personal doctor or health care provider, not being able to see a doctor in the past year because of cost, and taking medication to control high blood pressure among adults with high blood pressure.

Chronic disease conditions included reporting ever having been told by a doctor or other health professional that the respondent had asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, coronary heart disease including heart attack or anginastroke, or cancer excluding skin cancer.

Statistical software that accounts for the complex sampling design of the BRFSS was used for analyses to obtain age-specific prevalences by race, prevalence ratios that compared blacks with whites, and CIs.

Top Results In 1999, age-adjusted death rates for any cause of death were 1,135. By 2015, the racial gap had narrowed with age-adjusted death rates of 851. Age-specific deaths for selected leading causes of death among blacks declined between 1999 and 2015 Figure 2. During 2014, sociodemographic characteristics differed by race Table 2. During 2015, health behaviors differed between the two populations Table 3. Blacks were more likely to be obese, to have no leisure time physical activity, and less likely to have a normal body weight in all age groups compared with whites.

In contrast, blacks were less likely to report binge drinking than whites.

In all age groups, blacks were more likely than whites to report cancer respiratory and cardiovascular diseases mortality rates among african americans and hispanics being able to see a doctor in the past year because of cost. Blacks aged 18—34 years were less likely to have a personal doctor or health care provider than whites Table 3.

Blacks with high blood pressure were more likely than whites in each age group to report taking medication to control it. Blacks in all age groups were more likely to report fair to poor health status than whites Table 3. The prevalence of having diagnoses of some chronic conditions was higher among blacks than whites across age groups, including for asthma, high blood pressure, diabetes, and stroke.

In contrast, blacks across all age groups were less likely than whites to report a cancer diagnosis. At ages 18—34 years, blacks had higher death rates than whites for eight of the 10 leading causes of death among blacks in that age group heart disease; cancer; cerebrovascular disease; diabetes mellitus; homicide; HIV disease; and conditions resulting from pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium.

At ages 35—49 years, blacks had higher death rates than whites for heart disease; cancer; cerebrovascular disease; diabetes mellitus; homicide; nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis; septicemia; and HIV disease.

At ages 50—64 years, blacks had higher death rates than whites for leading chronic diseases heart disease, cancer; cerebrovascular disease; diabetes mellitus; and nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis as well as for unintentional injury, septicemia, and HIV disease.

Death rates from heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and homicide began increasing at earlier ages among blacks than among whites.

There were significant declines in deaths from HIV disease in the past 17 years for both racial populations. Among persons aged 35—49 years, there were 45 fewer HIV disease deaths per 100,000 among blacks during 2015 compared with 1999, while among whites there were six fewer HIV disease deaths Table 1.

However, during 2015, blacks in age groups 18—34, 35—49, and 50—64 were seven to nine times more likely than whites to die from HIV disease.

Some age groups of blacks had lower death rates than whites for four leading causes of death: In addition, during 1999—2015, blacks saw declines in the two leading causes of death, heart disease and cancer, across all age groups. However, despite substantive reductions in death rates among blacks in the United States, blacks continue to have higher death rates overall, higher prevalence of many chronic health conditions, and lower prevalence of some healthy behaviors. Blacks were less likely to participate in leisure-time physical activity and maintain a healthy weight.

Blacks were more likely to report not being able to see a doctor because of cost, even though, across age groups, the percentages of blacks and whites who reported having a personal doctor or health care provider were approximately equal.

In addition, this analysis shows that blacks had significantly lower educational attainment and home ownership and almost twice the proportion of households living below the poverty level and unemployed than whites in all age groups. For example, blacks in age groups 18—34 and 35—49 were nearly twice as likely to die from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes as whites.

Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population

Taken in the context of other research, the substantial differences in mortality, health behaviors, access to health care, and social factors across the life span identified in this analysis highlight the importance of a dual strategy of universal and targeted interventions to address disparities in black health 11. Opportunities for interventions have been identified that decision-makers, public health programs, clinicians, and communities can use.

The Community Preventive Services Task Force has recommendations for interventions with proven effectiveness for the prevention of obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco use, promotion of cancer screening, and medication adherence https: CDC has also released a series of violence prevention technical packages to help communities use the strategies with the best available evidence https: To ensure continued progress in improving health for all U.

The findings in this report are subject to at least six limitations. First, information about many characteristics were self-reported and subject to recall and social desirability biases, although this is unlikely to account for large disparities within the analyses 16.

Second, this was a cross-sectional analysis, and data do not allow a comparison of rates for the same cohort as they aged 16. Third, the American Community Survey and BRFSS are household surveys and exclude persons living in institutions, long-term care facilities, and prisons.

Fourth, there are technical and conceptual limitations associated with examining race in epidemiologic analyses because it is complex and generally represents other economic, psychosocial, and environmental factors 17—19. Fifth, although whites were considered as the benchmark 20or referent in this analysis, blacks had lower death rates for unintentional injury and suicide in some age groups and lower prevalences of binge drinking.

Finally, differences within blacks and whites by sex, socioeconomic characteristics, and Hispanic subgroups were not considered, yet might modulate some of the relationships seen overall.

Optimizing health for all U. Although significant strides have been made in the United States in the last 17 years, disparities still exist. To continue to improve the health of the black population, there is a continued need to translate research results into effective universal and targeted interventions across the lifespan to inform action.