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Compare and contrast kinsey and thank you for smoking

Abstract Objective To provide the first empirical investigation of the association between smoking cessation and indices of physiological and subjective sexual health in men. Participants were assessed at baseline while smoking regularlyat mid-treatment while using a high-dose nicotine transdermal patchand at a 4-week post-cessation follow-up.

Physiological circumferential change via penile plethysmography and subjective sexual arousal indices continuous self-reportas well as self-reported sexual functioning were assessed at each visit.

Although successful quitters displayed across-session enhancements in sexual function, they did not show a differential improvement compared with unsuccessful quitters.

Compare and contrast kinsey and thank you for smoking

Conclusion Smoking cessation significantly enhances both physiological and self-reported indices of sexual health in long-term male smokers, irrespective of baseline erectile impairment.

It is hoped that these results may serve as a novel means to motivate men to stop smoking. In addition to introducing cardiovascular [ 2 ] and respiratory diseases [ 3 ], as well as many types of cancer [ 4 ], smoking has been associated with elevated rates of erectile dysfunction ED. Large cross-sectional [ 7 — 11 ] and longitudinal [ 12 ] epidemiological studies indicate that chronic smokers are about 1.

Considering the robust evidence indicating the link between cigarette smoking and ED, an intervention with the broadest health impact is smoking cessation.

Association between smoking cessation and sexual health in men

Similarly, Guay et al. Results showed significant improvement 24 h after smoking cessation for both of these indices. Additionally, four men were assessed 1 month later while adhering to a daily21-mg nicotine transdermal patch regimen, and results indicated a trend for continued improvement.

These studies provide an excellent foundation for examining the putative relationship between smoking and sexual health; however, they raise several questions that remain unanswered. First, these studies have only assessed individuals with clinically diagnosed ED, and therefore it remains unclear how smoking cessation affects sexual arousal responses in nonclinical individuals.

Second, although improvements in erectile capacity were shown in these studies, it is unclear how these statistically significant improvements translate to clinically significant enhancements. Although stopping smoking substantially enhances many aspects of health, the positive health benefits of smoking cessation are not sufficient enough for many smokers to consider quitting. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to examine whether stopping smoking was associated with sexual health improvements, with the hope that the results could serve as a novel means to influence men to stop smoking.

Sexual arousal, measured both physiologically and subjectively, as well a sexual functioning, were assessed at three time intervals: Subjects and methods Male participants, who were motivated to stop smoking quitterswere recruited through online and community advertisements between 2008 and 2010.

Exclusion criteria were as follows: All participants were monitored weekly for patch compliance, as well as for intra- and post-treatment tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy use. Participants also received adjunctive counselling, which was based upon the tobacco use and dependence clinical practice guidelines [ 17 ] and the protocols of the National Cancer Institute [ 18 ].

Participants also received a minimum of ten 10-min weekly telephone counselling sessions.

  1. Study completers vs those that discontinued treatment differed only with respect to education and race.
  2. A small proportion of cases can be explained by well-established factors such as congenital cancer predisposition syndromes or exposure to ionizing radiation.
  3. Data reduction Initial physiological and continuous subjective sexual arousal scores for each session were computed by averaging all data collected during the neutral and erotic film segments.

Participants were tested individually in a private, internally locked testing room. After providing written informed consent, participants completed a battery of self-report measures assessing demographic variables, mood via the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS [ 19 ]and several smoking characteristics. All participants provided saliva samples and they were spuriously informed that these samples would be assayed for salivary nicotine content.

This was to help ensure valid self-reporting of cigarette consumption. Participants then fit the penile plethysmograph themselves and viewed an erotic film.

During film presentation, participants were asked to continuously monitor their level of subjective sexual arousal using a hand-controlled device.

Immediately after the film presentation, participants removed the plethysmograph and they were given 28 high-dose patches, and were asked to start nicotine replacement therapy the following morning.

The procedures of visits 2 and 3 were identical to the first session. The second visit occurred during week 4 of patch treatment. At the completion of the session, participants were given the remainder of the patch regimen. Primary outcome measures Genital arousal was assessed via penile circumferential change using a mercury-in-rubber strain gauge Hokanson, Inc.

Compare and contrast kinsey and thank you for smoking

Penile tumescence is considered the most sensitive index of sexual arousal and the most reliable measure of physiological response [ 20 ]. Indices of physiological sexual arousal included within-session percentage change in penile tumescence, and rate of onset to reach maximum tumescence slope. Measures of self-reported sexual arousal were continuously measured using a hand-controlled device [ 21 ], which consisted of a mouse mounted on a wooden track divided into seven equally spaced intervals, where zero indicated neutral, and 1—7 reflected increasingly higher levels of feeling sexually aroused.

Indices of subjective sexual arousal included within-session percentage change, and rate of onset to reach maximum arousal slope.

  1. Of these individuals, 116 were ineligible, nine declined to participate, and nine were unable to be contacted further to enrol.
  2. We just don't ask these on the major federal surveys that are used typically to count Americans or to kind of gauge the health and well being of Americans. So there's an age difference.
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  4. Group status successful quitter, relapser was based on these imputed values. Purple and contrast compare the color essay - i could not turn in this final essay rn and id still be stuck with a b lack of motivation to do this assignment is an understatement.

Sexual function was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function IIEF [ 22 ], which is the most widely used psychometric index of self-reported erectile function.

The IIEF is a 15-item measure assessing five-factor analytically derived areas of male sexual functioning including erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction.

Data reduction Initial physiological and continuous subjective sexual arousal scores for each session were computed by averaging all data collected during the neutral and erotic film segments. Compare and contrast kinsey and thank you for smoking percentage change from the neutral to erotic film presentations was calculated for both physiological and continuous subjective sexual arousal. Efficacy of smoking cessation was evaluated with the use of a 1-week point prevalence abstinence rate at week 12 4 weeks after patch discontinuation.

Based upon these parameters, a priori power analyses suggested that 18 participants were necessary in each group at each time point to detect across-session differences, and a total sample size of 54 participants was necessary to adequately assess between-group differences.

To be conservative, 65 participants were enrolled. All analyses were conducted on an intent-to-treat basis using full information maximum likelihood estimation [ 24 ].

Missing values for each primary outcome variable were successively estimated using several baseline characteristics, discontinuation status, as well as each respective baseline primary outcome value. Additionally, total number of cigarettes smoked throughout the study, total patch use daysand number of cigarettes smoked during week 12 were estimated in a similar fashion. Group status successful quitter, relapser was based on these imputed values. In cases where the overall interaction term was statistically significant, planned comparison F-tests for adjusted cell means were used to assess between-group differences at each time point.

Differences in baseline characteristics between treatment completers and those that discontinued treatment, as well as between successful quitters and relapsers, were compared with t tests or Pearson chi-squared tests, as appropriate.

All analyses were performed using SPSS statistical software version 17. Results In all, 228 men completed the initial telephone screening. Of these individuals, 116 were ineligible, nine declined to participate, and nine were unable to be contacted further to enrol. Of the 112 men who met inclusion criteria, 47 did not attend their initial evaluation, resulting in a final sample of 65 participants.

Study completers vs those that discontinued treatment differed only with respect to education and race.

  • Results showed significant improvement 24 h after smoking cessation for both of these indices;
  • Talk more about that, if you would;
  • We'll hear about it in a few minutes;
  • Talk more about that, if you would;
  • Thank you both so much for joining us;
  • And so this ongoing discrimination that can lead to health disparities and to hiding, let's say, or to dropping out of school, these things have to be at least as important as the numbers of us.

Successful and unsuccessful quitters did not differ significantly on any of the socio-demographic or smoking characteristics.