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Contributions made by major behavioural science disciplines to organisational behaviour

Norms, rules, or regulation controlling conduct or behavior Beliefs held by people as actors Status and status relationships Authority or power to influence other actors Role expectations, role performances, and role relationships.

Therefore, organizations are viewed by sociologies as consists of a variety of people with different roles, status, and degree of authority. The organization attempts to achieve certain generalized and specific objectives. Social Psychology It has been defined as the scientific investigation of how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied the presence of others.

It deals with how people are affected by other individuals who are physically present or who are imagined to be present or even whose presence is implied. In general, sociology focuses on how groups, organizations, social categories, and societies are organized, how they function, how they change.

The unit of analysis is the group as a whole rather than the individuals who compose the group.

  • In addition, we find social psychologists making significant contributions in the areas of measuring , understanding, and changing attitudes; communication patterns; building trust; the way in which group activities can satisfy individual needs; and group decision-making process;
  • This assertion is supported by any perusal of public health journals or literature on social and behavioral science in public health in the second half of the twentieth century;
  • This distinguishes the field from psychology;
  • This transaction cost economics examines the extent to which the organization structure and size of an organization varies in response to attempts to avoid market failures through minimizing production and transaction costs within the constraints of human and environmental factors;
  • Familiarity within some of the cultural differences of employees can lead to a greater managerial objectivity and depth in the interpretation of behavior and performance;
  • It is also characterized by being eclectic in its borrowing from the other social sciences.

Social Psychology deals with many of the same phenomena but seeks to explain whole individual human interaction and human cognition influences culture and is influenced by culture. The unit of analysis is the individual within the group. In reality, some forms of sociology are closely related to social psychology. Social Psychologists study an enormous range of topics including conformity, persuasion, power, influence, obedience, prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, sexism and racism, small groups, social categories, inter-group behavior, crowd behavior, social conflict, social change, decision making, etc.

Among them, the most important topics relevant to the organizational behavior field are behavioral change, attitude change, communication, group process and group decision making. Social psychologists making significant contributions. Social psychologists making significant contributions to measuring, understanding and improving attitudes, communication patterns how groups can satisfy individual needs and group decision-making process.

Anthropology The main aim of anthropology is to acquire a better understanding of the relationship between the human being and the environment. Adaptations to surroundings constitute culture. The manner in which people view their surroundings is a part of the culture. Culture includes those ideas shared by groups of individuals and languages by which these ideas are communicated.

In essence, culture is a system of learned behavior. Their work on culture and environment has helped us to understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in different countries and within different organizations. Much of our current understandings of organizational culture, environments, and differences between national cultures are the results of the work of anthropologists or those using their methodologies.

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The world is the laboratory of anthropologists, and human beings must be studied in the natural habitat. Understanding the importance of studying man in natural settings over time enables one to grasp the range of anthropology.

  1. Psychology Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. The way Nigerian society cares little about the welfare of the employees tend to make some of these business operators to begin to wonder about the necessity of behavioural science in an organization.
  2. Psychology Psychology is the science that attempts to measure, explain, and at times change the behavior of humans and other animals.
  3. Sociology is perhaps the broadest of the social science fields applied to public health.
  4. Social Psychology Social psychology blends the concepts of psychology and sociology.
  5. Those who have contributed and continue to add to the knowledge of OB are learning theorists, personality theorists, counseling psychologists, and, most important, industrial and organizational psychologists. One of the major areas under considerable investigation by social psychologists has been change— how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance.

Familiarity within some of the cultural differences of employees can lead to a greater managerial objectivity and depth in the interpretation of behavior and performance. Anthropologists contribute to study some aspects of organizational settings — similar values, comparative attitudes, cross-cultural analysis between or among the employees.

  1. Costs of transactions include both costs of market transactions and internal coordination.
  2. The major challenge deals with the issue of how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance.
  3. So the knowledge of psychology can realy help in improving and modifying the behaviour of individual and group.
  4. Organizations must ensure that their employees know how to deal with behavioural issues in their everyday work lives.
  5. The behavioral sciences, particularly psychology, are concerned with the study of the actions of humans and animals. Specific topics of concern here include the structuring of conflict, allocation of power, and how people manipulate power for individual self-interest.

Political Sciences Contributions of political scientist are significant to the understanding of behavior in organizations. Political scientists study the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. In a business field, organizations wanted to attain supremacy in their field and indulge in politicking activities to gain maximum advantages by following certain tasks like Machiavellianism, coalition formation, malpractices, etc.

The knowledge of political science can be utilized in the study the behavior of employees, executives at micro as well as macro level.

Contributing disciplines to the OB field

Economics Economics contributes organizational behavior to a great extent in designing the organizational structure. Transaction cost economics influence the organization and its structure. Transaction costs economics implies costs components to make an exchange on the market. This transaction cost economics examines the extent to which the organization structure and size of an organization varies in response to attempts to avoid market failures through minimizing production and transaction costs within the constraints of human and environmental factors.

Costs of transactions include both costs of market transactions and internal coordination. So we can assume that there are various types of disciplines which involve organizational behavior. They, directly and indirectly, influence the overall activities of OB.