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Effects of extra curricular activities in academic performance of students

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Youth Adolesc See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Students who participate in extracurricular activities in middle school exhibit higher levels of academic motivation and achievement, including graduation from high school.

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However, the mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Using weighted propensity score analyses to control for potential confounders, results of longitudinal SEM found indirect effect of participation in sports, but not of participation in performance arts and clubs, on grade 9 outcomes noted above.

Implications of findings for improving educational attainment of at-risk youth are discussed.

  1. Conversely, participation in sports may be more consistently related to a higher sense of school belonging and closer social ties among students, parents, and schools than is participation in non-sport activities Broh, 2002.
  2. Students were asked about their perceptions of the relationship between ECAs and academic studies, and their reasons for participating in and satisfaction with ECAs. The percentages of those reporting ECA participation were 27.
  3. The percentages of those reporting ECA participation were 27.

However, there is a dearth of research on the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of extracurricular participation on academic outcomes. An understanding of processes that account for beneficial effects of participation would permit more focused efforts to enhance these effects. Participation in extracurricular activities is common among adolescents in the United States.

  1. In response to the encouraging finding with respect to extracurricular activity participation, future researchers may wish to delve further into the topic by examining the activities or characteristics of those activities that prove most beneficial for the academic performance of children. This study also contributed to the literature on parent involvement and extracurricular activity participation by testing the relationship of each to academic performance.
  2. Using weighted propensity score analyses to control for potential confounders, results of longitudinal SEM found indirect effect of participation in sports, but not of participation in performance arts and clubs, on grade 9 outcomes noted above. Untangling Selection and Socialization Effects Students are not randomly assigned to participation; rather, students select, or are recruited into, these activities.
  3. The difference between groups was statistically analyzed using a t-test.
  4. However, there is a dearth of research on the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of extracurricular participation on academic outcomes.
  5. In other words, children with low parent involvement who participated in extracurricular activities were expected to academically outperform children with low parent involvement who did not participate in extracurricular activities.

Extracurricular activities include a wide range of specific activities, including team and individual sports, drama, music, student government, and academic clubs.

Based on the premise that school-sponsored activities are more likely than community-sponsored activities to promote identification with school and its values and norms, including achievement Finn, 1989the current study focuses on participation in school-sponsored activities.

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Importantly, the study uses propensity score analyses to equate participant and non-participant groups on a comprehensive set of variables measured prior to participation, thereby reducing potential confounders.

That is, youth both gravitate toward peers whom they perceive as similar to them and as sharing their values and goals selection effectsand become more similar to their friends over time socialization effects. Given these differences in peer processes, and the finding that youth who participate in extracurricular activities tend to be more prosocial and academically oriented than nonparticipants, extracurricular activities are well designed to promote the selection and maintenance of friendships with well-adjusted peers Fredricks and Simpkins, 2013.

For example, participation in performance arts e. Conversely, participation in sports may be more consistently related to a higher sense of school belonging and closer social ties among students, parents, and schools than is participation in non-sport activities Broh, 2002. Untangling Selection and Socialization Effects Students are not randomly assigned to participation; rather, students select, or are recruited into, these activities.

Due to potential selection effects, a finding that participants and non-participants differ at some future point on an outcome e.

Propensity scores generate a single index-the propensity score-that summarizes information across the covariates i.

The Effect of Extra-curricular Activities on Academic Achievement

Procedures such as matching and weighting can then be used to equate the treatment group i. Given successful equating is achieved on all confounding variables, the propensity score analysis produces an unbiased estimate of the average effect of participation on students.

Utilizing the same longitudinal sample as the current study, Im, Hughes, Cao, and Kwok 2015 used propensity score analysis to investigate the effect of two broad domains of extracurricular activities i. The current study extends the Im et al. An understanding of the role of friends in accounting for the benefits of extracurricular participation would have implications for enhancing benefits of participation.

Despite gender differences in activity contexts, the effects of extracurricular participation are generally similar for boys and girls Im et al. This study is the first to test gender differences in the mechanisms responsible for effects of participation on academic outcomes.

Hypotheses Based on the preceding theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we test a model positing indirect effects of participation in two broad domains of school-based extracurricular activities sports and performance arts and clubs in grade 8 on grade 9 academic outcomes i.

The hypothesized model is depicted in Figure 1. Based on lack of prior research, analyses of gender moderation of the hypothesized indirect effects are exploratory.