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Effects of overtraining on humans body and mind

Lower percent of body fat Menstrual disruptions Prolonged recovery from exercise Reappearance of previously corrected mistakes Adapted from Fry, R.

Overtraining a concern for older athletes | The Wichita Eagle

What psychological factors are associated with OTS? Mood changes are an early and sensitive marker of OTS.

  • The signs and symptoms that appear, due to this type of overtraining, are similar to those seen in endurance exercise;
  • A lack of balance results in enhanced platelet adhesion and cortisol production, increased serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, low-grade inflammation, and loss of the protein-sparing mechanism.

Emotional disturbances usually occur before a noticeable drop in performance and parallel an increased training load 4. Depression and chronic fatigue represent the most common OTS condition observed in highly fit individuals 5.

Overtraining Syndrome

Research 3, 6, 7 has shown that clinical depression and OTS have numerous symptoms in common see Table 2including changes in neurotransmitters, immune responses, and hormones. Personal trainers should discuss their observations with clients to openly resolve concerns together.

Consultation with a sports medicine psychologist or qualified health expert may be necessary if the condition does not seem to improve with time. Fitness professionals should also realize that their clients may also be dealing with stressful conditions involving work, family, school or social environment situations, which may contribute to OTS.

Although an individual may already be very fit, the trigger for illness or injury may be a result of the following two factors: According to David C. Studies have shown that physiological changes take place in cells specifically related to immune function during times of increased training stress and volume 6.

Failing to eat enough healthy sources of protein, carbohydrate, and fat compromises immune function by not allowing the body to repair itself and recover for continued bouts of exercise. Recreational enthusiasts who enjoy competing in athletic events or are adamant about daily workouts should be aware that a string of illnesses may be linked to OTS.

  • Negative stress distress is the type to avoid;
  • However, not sufficiently fueling and refueling the body is detrimental to training and recovery, and a contributing factor to OTS.

Does nutrition impact OTS? Many fit individuals who follow a strict workout schedule also adhere to strict dietary regimes.

  1. Indeed, other clients may need sustained days of rest from all physical activities to recover from OTS.
  2. Physical rest is the only cure. Another danger for older athletes is not eating a proper diet.
  3. They include a slump in performance, constant fatigue, insomnia, increased irritability and even a loss of interest in your sport. Perhaps one of the best design strategies a personal trainer can incorporate to prevent overtraining in resistance training is to utilize a periodization training program with clients.
  4. Consultation with a sports medicine psychologist or qualified health expert may be necessary if the condition does not seem to improve with time. When hormones are produced in a manner such as those associated with psychological chronic stress they produce several negative effects according to research.
  5. The cellular damage that occurs during overtraining can lead to nonspecific, general activation of the immune system, including changes in natural killer cell activity and the increased activation of lymphocytes, which are what defend our body from infections. Systematic model for understanding psychosocial influences in overtraining.

Societal pressures may influence these individuals to limit caloric intake, with the mistaken belief that they are maintaining a sleek physique and aiding performance in the gym. However, not sufficiently fueling and refueling the body is detrimental to training and recovery, and a contributing factor to OTS. After a hard workout, intramuscular stores of glycogen are depleted, which makes carbohydrate consumption essential.

Consuming foods such as a bowl of corn flakes with raisins, a handful of vegetables with baby carrots, broccoli, and cauliflowera fruit salad with strawberries, bananas and pineappleor your favorite pasta dish can speedily refill glycogen stores.

In fact, consumption of sufficient and healthy sources of carbohydrate, protein and fat are necessary to continually perform at a high level day after day. Nutritional imbalances may result from reduced dietary intake and exaggerated energy expenditure. Overall fatigue and injury often occur when energy expenditure continually exceeds caloric intake and the body is not properly fueled to sustain exercise.

Early warning signs include loss of appetite and unnecessary or unwanted weight loss. Recreational enthusiasts should be aware that exercising, even at moderate efforts, stresses the body and results in increased metabolism, additional heat production, and a multitude of physiological and hormonal changes requiring an increased demand for fuel and a balanced diet 9.

Consultation with a Registered Dietician with a background in sports nutrition is recommended for clients who need guidance in meal planning and nutritious food choices to sustain an active lifestyle. When does resistance training lead to overtraining?

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Resistance training workouts are designed by combining choice of exercise, order of exercise, exercise volume sets x repetitionsload or intensity percent repetition maximumand rest between sets.

According to Fry 11the two most common triggers of OTS in resistance training are workout volume and intensity. The signs and symptoms that appear, due to this type of overtraining, are similar to those seen in endurance exercise.

Fry 10 adds that high training volume often results in a decrease in the ratio between testosterone to cortisol, thus impairing muscular fitness gains.

It may cause increased sympathetic the accelerating branch of the autonomic nervous system nervous system activity in order to adjust for decreased muscular strength. Perhaps one of the best design strategies a personal trainer can incorporate to prevent overtraining in resistance training is to utilize a periodization training program with clients.

Periodization is most widely used in resistance program design to avoid over-training, while maximizing performance gains and recovery.

  1. Physical rest is the only cure.
  2. The damage stress places on the brain may make dealing with future stresses progressively more difficult, but it can likely be reversed with effective stress-management techniques and behavior modification. The connection is not yet completely clear, but research seems to suggest that significant stress may amplify the immune response to asthma triggers such as pollen, severe cold, animal dander, or dust.
  3. It may seem spiritual, but everyone underestimates the power of meditation, it reduces cortisol levels and helps you sleep, and many other things like helping you deal with stress more calmly. Other digestive disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome IBS , characterized by pain and bouts of constipation and diarrhea, are thought to be primarily fueled by stress.

A reduction in volume and an increase in intensity in steps during the training cycle is referred to as stepwise periodization. In the overreaching periodization model there is periodic short-term 1-2 week increase in volume or intensity followed by a return to normal training. During undulating periodization, training volume and intensity are increased and decreased on a regular weekly basis, but not in the general pattern of always increasing intensity and decreasing volume as the training period progresses.

Periodization training is typically divided up into three types of cycles: The microcycle is generally up to 7 days. The mesocycle may be anywhere from 2 weeks to a few months and can further be classified into preparation, competition, peaking, and transition phases.

The macrocycle refers to the overall training period, usually representing a year. For a comprehensive article on periodization and other resistance training design ideas, the reader is referred to the article by Sorace and LaFontaine on Resistance Training Muscle Power: Meyer and Whelan 11 note that other symptoms are mental exhaustion, lowered self-esteem, emotional isolation, and increased anxiety. However, the physiological symptoms that accompany burnout are the same seen with OTS.

A change in scenery i. Research suggests the following ideas may be helpful in preventing OTS 7: Be sure clients know to eat a healthy diet, drink enough fluid to stay hydrated, and get enough sleep for optimum performance every day. Encourage and allow clients to openly communicate about concerns, both physical and mental.

Physical training is affected by emotional health. Explain to your clients and students that job stressors, interpersonal relationships, and other environmental stressors may have a harmful effect on physical performance.

Maintaining health and wellness in all areas of life will effects of overtraining on humans body and mind to prevent OTS. The rest and decrease in exercise needs to be individualized for each client. For instance, some individuals may just need one or more recovery days added to their weekly program.

Indeed, other clients may need sustained days of rest from all physical activities to recover from OTS. Highly fit individuals sometimes find complete rest a greater source of stress. Emphasis toward lower intensity physical activities such as walking, stretching, mind-body programs, and balance, core and stability training may be very suitable program options.

An appointment with a physician specializing in sports medicine may be the final direction if OTS persists. Condensed Version and Bottom Line The ability to identify and possibly prevent overtraining syndrome is key in the course of designing progressive overload training programs.

OTS impacts physiological, psychological, immunological and nutritional well-being, and an abundance of signs and symptoms exist for the keen professional observer to identify. If an individual avoids overtraining, he or she is more likely to improve fitness, avoid burnout, and avoid illness or injury that prevents one from working out. The personal trainer and fitness professional has an arsenal of useful information and tips to prevent OTS, a syndrome that is detrimental to a physically active population of exercisers who seek regular physical activity as a way of life.

Effects of athletic endurance training on infection rates and immunity. A review of overtraining syndrome: Recognizing signs and symptoms. Journal of Athletic Training. Overreaching and Overtraining in Endurance Athletes. An analysis of overreaching and overtraining research.

Depression and chronic fatigue in athletes. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine. What tools do we have? Sports Medicine, 32 2: The unknown mechanism of overtraining syndrome.

Overtraining, excessive exercise, and altered immunity. Effect of dietary intake on immune function in athletes. Overtraining with resistance exercise. Systematic model for understanding psychosocial influences in overtraining.