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Five project management life cycle pmlc models

The author refers to this process as evaluating the landscape of the proposed project Wysocki, p. We will need to understand the various aspects of the four quadrants of the project landscape.

By understanding and evaluating the project landscape, the project manager can deduce the best PMLC model to implement on the project. Additionally, he must take into account each of these models vulnerability in terms of failures and risks. In this report I will identify the five PMLC models, dissect their strengths and weaknesses and assess where I would expect the most failures to occur. I will then propose some mitigating strategies that would be used to minimize the risk of occurrence of these failures.

I will also give brief examples in each of these areas of actual projects that I have used the various PMLC models. According to Wysocki p.

The Five Project Management Life Cycles

These two values for each variable generate the four-quadrant matrix. In many instances it involves projects that are repetitious in nature and typically there are no hidden surprises because of the constant involved. In construction, this could be a project that is built over and over, without change and may just be a repeat of a base prototype that was produced. Many of the fast food chains, pharmacies, and big box retailers use exact prototypes for their projects and use the TPM approach.

I have been involved with a US government project that consisted of 1,200 single family homes based on five standard designs. Each one of these designs were prototype and were built exactly alike with no changes and were based on the same standards and specification.

This project is an example of the TPM approach based on the following reasons: The project was repetitious and done several times.

There were basically no surprises as each of the five designs were built on the same parcel for nearly 250 different times. There were no changes that were allowed as each design was approved and selections predetermined. There were no scope changes contemplated and change requests were not considered. All the interior finishes were the same; same color, same type, and same specification. The project was low in complexity as the need for extensive programming and innovation was not required or necessary.

The project was relatively low risk since each conceivable variable was eliminated and the prototype was repeated so many times that the systems used to build were repeated. Agile Project Management APM — This management approach is based on knowing well defined goals but not the means for a solution. There is a broad range of projects that fall into this category that range from little known solutions to knowing much of the solution.

The Iterative model the solutions are mostly known while the Adaptive model the solutions are mostly not known. Many of the development projects that I am involved with follow the APM approach due to the fact that many clients have well defined goals and objectives on what they want to accomplish however, there solution on how to get there is often nonexistent.

Some of our clients might begin with a broad project summary that consists of a narrative with area desired, financial base parameters and certain program requirements, however, they have no idea how to make the project happen. Five project management life cycle pmlc models would state a budget of 400 million and require a 60 month date constraint from start of program design to grand opening. The solution is vague in regards to design, specific budgets, area concepts, etc.

This example would be an APM approach because of the following factors: The project is conceptual with some basic programming parameters with no or minimal defined solutions to meet the project objective. This is a new business opportunity for this hotel chain and due to a positive feasibility study there is untapped business opportunity. This project is critical to the expansion plan of an international hospitality company. It is essential for the client to be involved with the pre-construction phase beginning with conceptual designs, through schematic and design development.

This approach uses smaller planning teams for strategic planning, specialized task and focus groups, and a highly trained project management staff.

  • Typically, there are other tasks that can be scheduled within the same project to keep all members busy and productive;
  • This project is an example of the TPM approach based on the following reasons;
  • A phase consists of the five Process Groups, each performed once in the sequence Scoping Planning Launching Monitoring and;;;
  • Building specific protocols to follow by some project team.

Extreme Project Management xPM — This management approach is when neither a goal or solution is clearly defined. In most instances this approach is used on research and development projects.

  1. The five PMLC models are.
  2. This model uses repeated phases and has a high failure rate. Many of the development projects that I am involved with follow the APM approach due to the fact that many clients have well defined goals and objectives on what they want to accomplish however, there solution on how to get there is often nonexistent.
  3. By repeating the Scoping Phase, you may find that the goal may change due to the new direction the project will take. This project is critical to the expansion plan of an international hospitality company.
  4. Emertxe Project Management MPx — This management approach in which the solution is well defined, however, the goal is not defined.
  5. This model is in between the Iterative and Extreme models since it deals with a higher level of uncertainty in the solutions possible to meet the projected goals for the project. The planning team should have specific deadlines for design document review and input.

This type of project sometimes begins without knowing clear goals and solution. These type of projects are very high risk and many times are managed by guesses and trial and error. This type of approach is not conducive for the construction industry because of the following reasons: All construction development projects are based on design documents and associated specifications. It would not be practical nor possible to start a project without clear defined goals, objectives and solutions to implement those goals and objectives.

Practically, it would not be possible to obtain the necessary permits and regulatory requirements to begin an xPM project.

Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme, Sixth Edition by Robert K. Wysocki

The financial or investment groups would not finance or lend project dollars for a proposed project without clear goals and solutions. The standard project management methodologies for construction would not fir within the parameters of an xPM project approach. Emertxe Project Management MPx — This management approach in which the solution is well defined, however, the goal is not defined.

This approach, like the xPM approach, is not conducive to typical construction management projects. This process is used when there is a possible new technology or system that does not have a known application Wysocki P. These four management approaches must be considered by the project manager when evaluating a project to determine which PMLC model to implement. The five PMLC models are: The linear approach deals with the logic that the five process groups are based on a linear type flow process.

The five process group are completed in order sequentially from Scope to Plan to Launch to Monitor and Control and then to Project Closeout. Incremental — This approach is very similar to the Linear approach and is also a TPM approach, however, an Incremental approach releases solutions as they are completed. There are two differences between the Linear and Incremental approaches based on the following Wysocki p.

The Linear approach does not expect or encourage scope changes while the Incremental approach actually encourages scope change requests. Many times the solutions are not clearly defined and may require continuous feedback from the client as solutions are developed. This process is similar to five project management life cycle pmlc models design development process of a construction project.

As design documents and specifications are completed, the customer gives input in which the solution then iterated through the process of refining the design documents. Adaptive — This model is another form of the APM approach, however, unlike the Iterative model, this model has minimal information that is known about the solution and also is missing the functional aspect of searching for a solution.

This process is widely used by software development companies Wysocki p. This process can also be used in the construction management process when dealing with very complex, unordinary projects. This model is in between the Iterative and Extreme models since it deals with a higher level of uncertainty in the solutions possible to meet the projected goals for the project.

Extreme — This model is most appropriately used on research and development projects. It involves heavy client involvement and is a process used when the goals nor the solutions are known and are very high risk and high change type projects Wysocki p. This model uses both the xPM and PMx approaches and are titled extreme just by the nature of attempting to initiate or complete a project with so many unknowns.

Potential Failures, Risks, and Mitigating Strategies There are many potential failures and risks with the five models as described by the following: It has repetitive activities and there are few expected changes to the scope of work. The risks and mitigating factors for this model are as follows Wysocki p. This process does not accommodate changes to the scope — due to the nature five project management life cycle pmlc models the construction business, there is always potential for changes in the scope.

This characteristic can potentially lead to a delayed schedule and that ultimately will affect the overall project schedule.

  • Additionally, he must take into account each of these models vulnerability in terms of failures and risks;
  • The planning team should have specific deadlines for design document review and input;
  • The requirements of the project are known and not allow change request;
  • If the decision is made to go to the next phase, that phase begins with the scoping of the changed direction for the project.

In order to plan for this potential risk, the project manager should adopt a streamlined process for change order approvals. Also, there should be contingencies established for time and budget creep. The costs associated are too high — in the construction industry, the costs for preconstruction planning and project programming are considerable. This is frequently caused by customers having too much input from different managers causing a myriad of opinions and ultimate design changes.

These constant design changes can be very expensive. The planning team should have specific deadlines for design document review and input.

Additionally, there should be s refined owner representative group that has the only authority for input and design changes during the planning phase. It takes too long before deliverables are produced — most construction projects have a great commitment of time in both planning and implementation that consequently creates a long period of time before a customer five project management life cycle pmlc models realize and revenue. There is a potential that the project can fail if the schedule is skewed beyond the project schedule due to the costs involved to carry the project.

Mitigating strategy — The financial aspects of the project should be very clear. Concise source and use of fund strategies should be in place and should be a part of a comprehensive cash flow projection. Incremental — This PMLC model is a second TPM approach that is similar to the linear however the deliverables are released incrementally through a more aggressive schedule.

The team may not be intact between increments — this is a real concern that a project manager should consider. This is especially evident in design development as certain estimators are very concise in budget planning and have a potential of being moved to other projects if they are sitting idle. This potentially can cause a problem if another estimator is added to replace the original on due to not keeping a cohesive estimating strategy.

?Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC) Models Essay

Mitigating strategy — The scheduling of tasks of all your key players should be that there is no down time between increments. Typically, there are other tasks that can be scheduled within the same project to keep all members busy and productive. The Incremental model takes longer — due to the nature of completing activities in increments, there is a potential that the project could drag on; costing time and money. Mitigating strategy — The project manager must keep a strict timeline with accountability structures to maintain a steady flow of process and to keep deadlines in check with the project schedule.

The schedule and budget must be monitored to eliminate potential for creep. Iterative — This PMLC model follows the APM approach and is used when some of the solution is known but the circumstances, features and function are not clearly defined. This model requires more client input — this can be a problem if the client schedule is not coordinated tightly with the overall planning process schedule.

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Mitigating strategy — There must be clear delineation of responsibilities between the team and client and there needs to be a well defines process schedule with accountability timelines. Requires co-located teams — This requirement is very difficult since many of our projects have consultant teams from many five project management life cycle pmlc models of the world, consequently there is a risk for communication breakdown.

The teams may meet on a weekly or bi monthly basis at a design team meeting, however, the time in between can cause a breakdown in communication. Mitigating strategy — There must be a well thought and implemented communication plan that incorporates a standard for facilitating accurate information between team members. Adaptive — This PMLC model also follows the APM approach and is different than the Iterative due to the higher level of uncertainty in regards to the solutions and the processes used to get there.

High level of client involvement — as the Iterative model, the Adaptive requires a great deal of client involvement. Mitigating strategy — Similar to the Iterative model, there must be a system of accountability for the client to make timely decisions to process requests.