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Fruit and vegetable consumption of 16 30 year old

Advanced Search Abstract Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is linked to many positive health outcomes, nevertheless many adolescents do not consume fruit and vegetables on a daily basis.

Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed an increase in daily fruit and vegetable consumption between 2002 and 2010 in the majority of countries for both genders and all three age groups. A decrease in consumption was noticed in five countries for fruit and five countries for vegetables.

Overall, a positive trend was noticed, however increases in daily fruit and vegetable consumption are still indicated. Introduction Adolescence is an important developmental life stage characterized by high nutrient requirements to meet rapid growth.

Introduction

Dietary habits established during adolescence may also persist into adulthood, 1 and thus much emphasis has been placed on improving dietary habits at a young age. Fruit and vegetable consumption in particular has received much attention. Diets high in fruit and vegetables are associated with a lower risk of cancer, 2 coronary heart disease, 3 stroke 4 and other chronic diseases.

Therefore, as well as promoting health during adolescence, meeting the recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake can have positive implications for long term health. The World Health Organization WHO recommends at least 400 g of fruit and vegetables daily; and national recommendations are either close to or above this target. So far, it appears that dietary trend analyses among children and adolescents have been focused on the country or regional levels, for example, the UK, 1011 USA, 12—15 Norway, 1 Denmark 16 and Lithuania, 17 To our knowledge, no study has examined trends in fruit and vegetable intake cross-nationally in nationally representative samples of 11- 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, using standardized questionnaires, and this is the aim of this study.

Only data from countries who participated in all three surveys were included for the present paper: Children were asked to assess their frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables by ticking one of seven responses: Analyses As gender and age differences in fruit and vegetable consumption have previously been found, frequencies of daily fruit and vegetable consumption were standardized for age and gender by country i.

Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted for each country separately and pooled for the total sample.

Additional analyses were run by gender and age. Age, gender and survey year were included in the models as dummy indicator variables, as compared with a reference category. Results In figures 1 and 2daily fruit and vegetable consumption is represented using spider charts. The increase was mainly observed between 2002 and 2006; OR for fruit and vegetable for 2002 to 2006 were 1.

Fruit and vegetable consumption statistics

For 2006 to 2010 the OR were 1. A significant decrease in fruit consumption was noted in five countries Germany, Greenland, Greece, Poland and Portugalwhile no significant differences were found in six countries Czech Republic, Spain, Croatia, Macedonia, Sweden and Slovenia.

A significant decrease in vegetable consumption was found in five countries Germany, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Russia. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first report of trends in fruit and vegetable intake in youth across several countries examined using standardized methodology. This study found that overall a positive trend in fruit and vegetable consumption was observed between 2002 and 2010 mainly due to a significant increase between 2002 and 2006 and plateauing thereafter.

The increase may reflect the success of national policies and initiatives implemented in the early 2000s including educational messages, subsidized fruit and vegetables and increased fruit and vegetables at schools. For example, in Denmark a nation-wide 6-a-day initiative has been conducted since 2001 to increase the intake of fruit and vegetables in the population.

Despite this general positive trend in fruit and vegetable consumption, a decrease was noticed in a few countries. A second major finding is that large proportions of adolescents do not eat fruit and vegetables on a daily basis.

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This highlights the importance of a continued focus on promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption as indicated by other studies.

For example, in the Pro Children Project, the fruit and vegetable intake of 11-year-old children was far below the food-based dietary guidelines in the nine participating countries.

Finally, some strengths and limitations should be noted. Strengths of this study are the use of a large cross-national data set of adolescents across three different age groups, the use of standardized methods; and on-going validation of the included instruments.

  • Fruit and vegetable consumption in particular has received much attention;
  • Increasing consumption will probably require multifaceted approaches that augment educational campaigns with policy and environmental strategies aimed at the food system at large, from farm to plate, including schools, worksites, and retail establishments;
  • Key points First study to examine trends in fruit and vegetable intake cross-nationally in nationally representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old boys and girls;
  • Overall, a positive trend was noticed, however increases in daily fruit and vegetable consumption are still indicated;
  • Results This study included dietary contributions of fruits and vegetables from all dietary sources.

Seasonal bias may also influence cross-country comparisons, as time of data collection varied by country and access to fruit and vegetables may also vary by season. In summary, between 2002 and 2010 a positive trend in daily fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents across most countries was observed, but there is still room for improvement.

A review of fruit and vegetable policies and initiatives across countries could help to explain the changes documented and help guide future strategies to increase fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents.

A complete list of participating countries and researchers is available on the HBSC website http: The data collection for each HBSC survey is funded at the national level. Key points First study to examine trends in fruit and vegetable intake cross-nationally in nationally representative samples of 11- 13- and 15-year-old boys and girls.

A positive trend in daily fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents across most countries was observed between 2002 and 2010. A few countries experienced a decline in fruit and vegetable consumption between 2002 and 2010.

Further insight into fruit and vegetable policies and initiatives across countries could help to explain changes in intake and guide future strategies to increase fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents.