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Importance of illusion and fantasy in platos ideology and views

There are thousands of academic books and articles on Hemingway. Following his suicide in 1961, the 1960s decade saw the publication of almost four hundred serious studies on him, while in the 1970s the number increased to more than seven hundred; and the critical works, far from decreasing, have gained strength throughout the next decades Beegel, 1996; Wagner, 1998.

The most important trend among the critical studies is indubitably biographical. Numerous acquaintance and family biographies have been published, too. This imaginary identification with the writer determined their reading of him, as they stuck to the culturally reassuring significance they thought Hemingway incarnated, unnoticing the textual subtleties of his works.

  • So Book One makes it difficult for Socrates to take justice for granted;
  • Even here the interpretation is not arbitrary;
  • In addition to the epistemic gap—the philosophers have knowledge and the non-philosophers do not—we have a motivational gap:

Literary studies were on the whole dominated by this specific ideological vision, premised upon the Americanness of national literature. See also Wirt Willi.

The perspective then is not moral or psychological but energetic and cathartic. The religious readings of Hemingway partake of the same logic. Indeed, the variety of remarks leads to the same alleged signified of the work: Nevertheless, Nick and Descartes are not far apart.

He will start where Descartes started, with what he could absolutely trust. For him, the Hemingway protagonist, especially Nick Adams, is but the projection of Hemingway himself, whose writing is considered as the dramatization or even the over-dramatization of the important events that marked his life, starting with his wounding in World War I.

While external action, which takes place not far from the front, is reduced fittingly to an invisible background, internal action, by far the most important, presents an exploration of the attic where Nick was born. This occurs on certain nights when he can not fish mentally any more, i.

As in other stories, the camp is suggestive of the primitive and dark side of life. It is a manifestation of the intrusive and irrational elements that impose upon the secure and rational faculties where order and light prevail.

Introduction: Fiction, Criticism, and the Ideological Mirror

After eleven years in Key West, Florida 1928-1939h. When the literary is thus submitted to the ideological, the fertile polysemy of the Hemingway text is reduced to the fake stability of the arbitrarily superimposed ideological signifieds. Strangely enough, Hemingway, the modernist and expatriate writer who preferred from the age of twenty-two to live abroad, 7 and whose work testifies to certain doubts about the American way of life, becomes in these studies the conveyor of the vitality of white Anglo-Saxon American ethics.

The early prominent critics who created and oriented the Hemingway studies, belonged assuredly to a generation whose excessive patriotic Americanism was ignited by the popular nationwide anti-communist campaigns of the 1950s and the global Cold War politics.

This is the specific case of what came to be called The Nick Adams Stories, a posthumously arranged and augmented collection, where the protagonist is seen as the mere projection of the writer. The order of composition and publication does not follow a chronological pattern. The order of the stories within the same volume does not follow a chronological line either. Those truths, which are equated in Hemingway with objects of desire and not concepts, were looked at and presented from different angles.

In truth, Courbet would have had a hard time drawing the picture. Hemingway avoids thus the limitations of realistic discourse and heightens the poetic and symbolic potentialities of his narratives. The absence of prosopography but also of ethopea frees the character from the ossifications of psychological depth, and liberates his creative energetic possibilities.

Benson contends that this chronological order is one of the major unifying devices of t. Meaning draws exclusively on order and fiction on biographical life brilliantly reproduced by the author. The gender issue and the correlated themes of sexuality, androgyny have now become the pivotal topic of any innovative study on Hemingway Spilka, 1990; Comley and Scholes, 1994….

Philosophy through Film

She even believes that the Hemingway study will take a new direction. The fiction is thus reassessed not in terms of possible new methods, but new ideas. The debate indeed continues to focus on the man, his personality, his social, moral, historical, and, of course, political significance. The restrictive domination of ideology among the earlier critics is not questioned but, on the contrary, justified as such. And except for some few studies, what Hemingway created, i.

The general critical attitude toward the writer does not so much reflect an artistic or literary concern as it expresses the will to change the cultural and hence ideological appreciation of Hemingway. In this important book, Nancy R. Moreover, while Hemingway like most authors wrote for cathartic purposes but with the clear intention of being freely appreciated and interpreted, literary criticism is heavily determined by classroom scholarship, and is hence influenced by the pedagogical, not to say ideological restrictive intentions of the teacher.

Hemingway, more than any other twentieth-century American writer, reflected sharply, as a cultural symbol, and as an appropriated critical object, the ideals and prejudices of his society. The question of critical appreciation depends hence on the manner his works have been taught and appreciated in the academy.

  1. Specifically, one should never attribute to the film a meaning that could not be intended by the creator of that work.
  2. The Naked and the Undead. Bersani 59 41In order to realize these aims and to maintain objectivity, realistic discourse places the emphasis on the protagonist and reduces the role of the narrator to a mere reporting agent, transcribing events that remain outside his own emotional realm.
  3. Second, the capacity to do what is best might require engaging in certain kinds of activities in order to maintain itself.
  4. It spread like lava, the grease spitting sharply.

Whatever the pertinence or impertinence of the observation, it symptomatically shows how the academy has it in its power to create and direct the critical reputation of a writer, and to impose, through oral and written criticism, the manner in which she or he should be appreciated. After all, Hemingway does not have two unconsciouses, one determining the later posthumous fiction, the other the rest of the work! As the textual reader knows, the same unconscious forces are at work in the whole of his fiction.

Yet, the persistent focus on the relation between text and culture unavoidably and detrimentally subjects the former to the latter. It is not the Hemingway Text which is actually considered, but what might be called the Hemingway Pre-text, or Hemingway as pretext for cultural debates: The image that Hemingway as a public figure strove to create and the life he chose to live were of course ideologically determined, but so was not his fiction.

Hemingway went to Spain and fought fascism, but not Robert Jordan the protagonist of the novel. Because through fiction and the symbolical action realized by his protagonist, the writer confronts death, this time not in the military or physical sense of the word. As dealt with in the text, death becomes an attractive power, an overwhelming desire, a mysterious energy that unites suffering and sensuality.

It is the necessary elucidation of this knot that structures the plot of the narrative and seems to have motivated its writing. This assumption is reassuring as it permits to skirt around the puritan diatribes against fiction and its useless artificiality and non-spirituality.

The biographical link is hence one of the most important elements that justify fiction.

  1. Socrates is quite explicit that the good at which the rulers aim is the unity of the city 462a—b. What Cox and Levine argue is that cinematic thought experiments can be presented with greater richness, nuance and perspective than may be found within the genres of professional philosophy the book, the journal article , where these experiments are typically abstract, thin and context-free Cox and Levine 201.
  2. He insists that there is more to a good human life than the satisfaction of appetitive attitudes. It would embody a form of thinking or of reflection—something other than philosophy.
  3. Benson contends that this chronological order is one of the major unifying devices of t... In a nutshell, the tyrant lacks the capacity to do what he wants to do.
  4. His landing net hung by a hook from his belt.

According to Robert E. I do not deny the existence of these models, but I contest the validity of the referential relationship with the text.

Slavoj Žižek (1949 —)

Assuredly, there is an epistemological confusion between two different orders or two different codes. The subjection of fiction to biographical reality, and hence one different code to another, is a recurrent trait in Hemingway criticism.

Almost all the alleged biographical models of the characters have been identified and used as reading keys. This is one reason why his fiction is supposedly representative and his characters considered as types.

Carlos Baker sees in Nick Adams a typical American young man: The proper textual identity, i. The coherence of the character is not textual, cognate with and functioning thanks to the symbolical network created by the fiction, but depends utterly on what occurs in the real world. Margot is above all a textual form, an artifice, or, better still, an active signifier that sounds like Marjorie of which Margot is a more developed version, in terms of marring and feminine power.

Very early essays emphasized the point. So what is meant exactly by realism in Hemingway? Is it a matter of expression or attitude?

Hemingway might have believed personally in this; but if he did, he never said it. But he never said that he wrote realistic fiction. In this perspective, Hemingway seems to expose his craftsmanship and to communicate a set of beliefs and ideas to his readers, to the detriment of signification and ambiguity. Linguistically speaking, it is the meaningfulness of literary texts which is valued, not its poetic opacity and ambiguity, its power of suggestion, its music and sensuality.

This is also what E. He briefly defines realism as a method of representation of life and of distinction between the objective and the subjective: One of these is familiar and, I should think, easily acceptable: The other, which I advance more tentatively, is that literary realism, like epistemological realism in the vocabulary of philosophy, should make a distinction between the objective and subjective worlds, presupposing and emphasizing the existence of things independent of our experience of them.

Ambiguity, which lies at the root of poetic suggestion, is to be avoided because it is subjective and maybe subversive; importance of illusion and fantasy in platos ideology and views writer, on the contrary, creates a transparent world that looks real, i.

These are the tools of the writer who importance of illusion and fantasy in platos ideology and views meaning willingly, and in so doing reassures society. Language is viewed as a medium devoid of traces of enunciation that might denote a different order of meaning: Bersani 59 41In order to realize these aims and to maintain objectivity, realistic discourse places the emphasis on the protagonist and reduces the role of the narrator to a mere reporting agent, transcribing events that remain outside his own emotional realm.

In other words, the Hemingway narrative, because the writing stance is not realistic but poetic, i. It spread like lava, the grease spitting sharply. Around the edges the buckwheat cake began to firm, then brown, then crisp. Moreover, the bubbling surface can also be considered as a babble of unconscious phonematic energy, or as a babel of unconscious voices trying to come up to the surface. The comic theatricality of the scene seems to confirm the realism of action and tone: He started down the stream, holding his rod, the bottle of grasshoppers hung from his neck by a thong tied in half hitches around the neck of the bottle.

His landing net hung by a hook from his belt. Over his shoulder was a long flour sack tied at each corner into an ear. The cord went over his shoulder. The sack flapped against his legs. Nick felt awkward and professionally happy with all his equipments hanging from him.

The grasshopper bottle swung against his chest. In his shirt the breast pockets bulged against him with the lunch and his fly book. Yet, what is of interest here is precisely what belies this phallic image: The rhyme is arresting: The unity of the two signifiers testifies to the power of desire at work, a desire of totality that challenges the limits of realistic discourse.

Yet, the poetic force of Hemingway does not lie only in these epiphanic truths, but in the relation between the double planes of discourse and enunciation.

The passage from the former to the latter is a minimal but intense illustration of the Freudian notion of sublimation. Here, the sexual identity theme has no psychological depth. It operates at the surface level and points to the creative possibilities of poetic language, staged by the falsely familiar action of the protagonist, and enjoyed hic et nunc by the narrator.

Here, the false depth of realistic perspectivism discussed above, has an imaginary counterpart, i.