Homeworks academic service


Mother perspectives of infant day care research

Ever since Bowlby1 promulgated attachment theory, thinking derived from it has led some to expect day care, especially when initiated in the earliest years of life, to undermine the security of infant-parent attachment relationships. A final reason for anticipating a link between day care and attachment security was because security reflected general emotional well-being, so adverse effects of day care in infancy would manifest themselves as insecure attachment. Background Early research on the link between day care and attachment, often carried out on children 3-5 years of age, provided no compelling evidence to support the claim that day care undermined security.

This conclusion did not go unchallenged. One criticism was that the apparent influence of early and extensive day care on insecurity was the result of other explanatory mother perspectives of infant day care research e.

Considered especially important was a taking into account confounding child, parent and family background factors that could be responsible for any putative child care effects; a distinguishing and disentangling potential effects of distinctive features of the child-care experience, particularly quality, quantity and type of care e.

The first two amplifying conditions applied to most children being studied. But only the first, quantity of care, also contributed to the prediction of attachment insecurity at 36 months,18 again in interaction with insensitive mothering. Just as important was evidence that infants with extensive day care experience a were not less stressed in the SSP than other infants see also19 and that b putatively independent behavior was not misconstrued as avoidant behavior.

In a second study of 145 first-born Australian infants, Harrison and Unger21 focused on maternal employment more than features of day care. The Australian mothers were more likely than their American and Israeli counterparts to be employed part-time rather than full-time. Research Gaps It remains unclear why results from different locales produce variable findings.

  • Early Childhood Care and Education;
  • In the first iteration all the themes were identified, and in the second iteration the themes were grouped into mutually exclusive categories;
  • Finally, I used the technique of triangulation for improving the probability that the findings and interpretations will be found more credible by using a second investigator to verify the contents of the transcriptions of the interviews;
  • What he did how much he ate, slept.

It could well involve the broader, national child care systems in which day care is embedded. Cross-national research seems called for. Characteristics of children themselves, perhaps especially their genetic make up, also merits further consideration.

  1. Professionalism, training and regulation are viewed as symbols of trust, in that they convey attributes of competence, reliability and consistency to the mother.
  2. Mothers in articulating their reasons for family care selection spoke of the importance of a "homelike" environment for their infants and younger children.
  3. Classroom Quality Assessment During the 4-week observation period, a principal investigator also conducted a global classroom quality observation of the classroom using the ITERS-R. Mothers chose this type of arrangement because they wanted to replicate the atmosphere of a home.
  4. The principal investigator has been trained on the measure and has experience using it in previous research. In some instances, acts of ingenuity, intelligence, or critical thinking seem to have been the points where a mother decides that the evidence of those unique behaviors is enough for her to trust the care giver.
  5. Our research questions were 1 What is the frequency of teacher-child interaction in the target child care classroom for each of the four focus children?

Nevertheless, the fact that results of three large-scale studies carried out in different locales vary substantially should make it clear that there are probably no inevitable effects of day care on attachment.

Effects appear contingent on the societal context in which day care is experienced.

  • Prior to the observation of each child, one observer met with one parent of each child to explain the study and observation procedure and gained informed consent;
  • Inquiry is value bound;
  • One respondent spoke of problems and confusion of expectations in the following manner;
  • Subject Child care is now an ordinary part of life for children in most western countries;
  • Findings included low levels of interaction between the individual toddlers and the caregivers throughout the classroom day.

Implications The fact that detected effects of day care on attachment security vary substantially by national context means that it is precarious to draw strong inferences from attachment theory as to what the effect of day care will be. Quality, type, timing and quantity of care must be distinguished and effects of these features of the child care may vary as a function of the larger familial, community, societal and cultural context in which child care occurs.

Not to be forgotten in any evaluation of the effects of day care are humanitarian considerations: What, not only, do mothers, fathers, policymakers and society more generally want, but what do children want?

  • Prior to the observation of each child, one observer met with one parent of each child to explain the study and observation procedure and gained informed consent;
  • The coding of the transcripts was done by identifying all the themes, problems, and opportunities;
  • Conceptualizing and Identifying Trust Trust, the ability to use the services of day care with feelings of satisfaction and peace of mind, seems to be an overarching concern with the mothers I interviewed;
  • Classroom Quality Assessment During the 4-week observation period, a principal investigator also conducted a global classroom quality observation of the classroom using the ITERS-R.

Belsky J, Steinberg L. The effects of day care: Effects of maternal absence due to employment on the quality of infant-mother attachment in a low risk sample.

Child care – Early childhood education and care

A cause for concern? Developmental risks still associated with early child care. Belsky J, Rovine M.

Nonmaternal care in the first year of life and the security of infant-parent attachment. Facts, fantasies, and the future of child care in the United States.

Attachment

Selective review of infant day care research: A cause for concern. Child Care and Child Development: Childcare in the United States: Melhuish E, Petrogiannis K, eds. Early Childhood Care and Education: Child Care Quality Matters: How Conclusions May Vary with Context.