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The conceptions of threshold sports and its rise in america

Secher, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Reviewed by: Received 2013 Oct 2; Accepted 2014 Jan 16. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

  1. HIIT has revealed great improvements in athletic performance and related key variables of endurance e. Design The intervention lasted 9 weeks plus 2 days of pre- and post-testing.
  2. There is a debate as to which of these training concepts may be superior in maximizing adaptations and performance.
  3. Further improvements of well-trained athletes require adding high intensity training sessions to HVT, as demonstrated in POL. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes.

Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes, and cross-country skiers peak oxygen uptake: An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed.

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Training intensity was heart rate controlled. No differences in pre- to post-changes of work economy were found between the groups. Body mass was reduced by 3.

POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. The first conditioning concept is prolonged high-volume low-intensity exercise HVT. There is a debate as to which of these training concepts may be superior in maximizing adaptations and performance. This type of exercise improves VO2peak by increasing stroke and plasma volume and induces molecular adaptations for capillary and mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby improving the efficiency of metabolic key components for energy fueling Romijn et al.

HIIT has revealed great improvements in athletic performance and related key variables of endurance e. These improvements were largely due to increases in O2 availability, extraction and utilization and the increases in VO2peak Daussin et al. Training at or close to the lactate threshold LT Faude et al. However, Norwegian world-class sprint cross-country skiers demonstrated greater training volume close to the LT when compared to national-level skiers Sandbakk et al.

In contrast, experimental and correlational data from well-trained athletes suggest that training time close to LT may be ineffective, or even counterproductive Esteve-Lanao et al. Retrospective analysis of the intensity, duration and frequency of the training load of international-level cross-country skiers Seiler and Kjerland, 2006rowers Steinacker et al.

Six weeks of cycling using POL resulted in greater systemic adaptation in already well-trained athletes when compared to THR Neal et al.

  • Body mass was reduced by 3;
  • In contrast, experimental and correlational data from well-trained athletes suggest that training time close to LT may be ineffective, or even counterproductive Esteve-Lanao et al;
  • Design The intervention lasted 9 weeks plus 2 days of pre- and post-testing;
  • The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice;
  • In many endurance sports, five key variables have been used as a benchmark to compare athletic performance in and between endurance athletes:

However, no study has investigated the POL concept in well-trained endurance athletes to determine whether this concept may be superior to the aforementioned training strategies. In many endurance sports, five key variables have been used as a benchmark to compare athletic performance in and between endurance athletes: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four training concepts HVT vs.

POL on the aforementioned key variables of endurance performance in well-trained athletes.

All participants were well-trained [62. Retrospective analysis of training protocols over 6 months prior to the study revealed that none of the participants had regularly executed HIIT. At baseline, the four groups were not statistically different with regard to age, height, body mass or VO2peak.

During an initial visit, study details and participation requirements were explained, and written informed consent was obtained. The study received approval from the University of Salzburg Austria Ethics Committee and was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Design The intervention lasted 9 weeks plus 2 days of pre- and post-testing.

  • These improvements were largely due to increases in O2 availability, extraction and utilization and the increases in VO2peak Daussin et al;
  • Design The intervention lasted 9 weeks plus 2 days of pre- and post-testing;
  • Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes, and cross-country skiers peak oxygen uptake;
  • The body mass of the well-trained athletes decreased by 3;
  • At baseline, the four groups were not statistically different with regard to age, height, body mass or VO2peak.

All participants were instructed not to change their diet throughout the training period and to maintain strength training, if it was part of their training program. Participants' nutritional intake was not standardized or controlled during the study, but for the 3 h prior to all testing in which food intake was not permitted.

  1. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
  2. This is consistent with findings demonstrating that running velocity at lactate threshold follows the improvements in VO2peak Helgerud et al. Long-term training studies are warranted to evaluate these aspects.
  3. Additionally, it is possible that in well-trained endurance athletes, repeated training bouts at LT might generate unwarranted sympathetic stress Chwalbinska-Moneta et al. Secher, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Reviewed by.
  4. The training intensity was controlled by HR based on the baseline incremental test.
  5. Body mass was reduced by 3. Depending on the athlete's baseline value, reduction in body mass may negatively impact immune function and overall health, as well as induce a catabolic state.

The training intensity was controlled by HR based on the baseline incremental test: The HR was measured during each training session and athletes documented training mode, exercise duration, and intensity in a diary. As a control and for detailed analysis, HR for all training sessions was stored digitally and analyzed retrospectively.

The two high volume weeks each included six training sessions with three 90 min LOW sessions, two 150—240 min LOW sessions according to the training mode: