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The discrimination of women in the global assembly line

In the past, it has always been men who were the breadwinners. Today, due to various social, political, and economic reasons, women are becoming the primary breadwinners in less developed countries. However, these women are being exploited, rather than appreciated.

Therefore, the differentials in the wages earned by men and women are often a reflection of the belief that men should earn more because they have families to support, while the latter merely add to the gains of husbands and fathers. The situation of women in labor markets bears great resemblance to that of migrants. Migrant workers are restricted in that they are working the discrimination of women in the global assembly line, therefore they must compromise with lower wages.

When they acquire jobs, the members of both groups are often seen with suspicion and hostility, as it is presumed that they compete unfairly against the members of a predominantly male working class. Single women are often exploited the most. Therefore, she does not need to be paid as if she were a career worker. It is their justification of their exploitation. Women are willing to work for these low wages because they have no other choice.

However, technology is much more sophisticated, due to the intervention of foreign companies. The men that are employed are often educated, and they work in the supervisory-management sector. The unskilled, assembly-line work is left to the women of the country. This leaves no one else to be the breadwinner, but the young daughter or wife.

No one else is qualified, because the corporations are able to pay women the lowest wages. Since they are able to justify paying young, single women the lowest wages, they are the only ones they hire. B Discuss the effects of this employment pattern on men and women in developing countries.

Women are rapidly displacing men in unskilled labor. It is not simply because they are better, not because they are more efficient -- but because they are willing to work for lower wages. They have no choice but to work for low wages, as I have described above.

Since corporations are hiring mostly women for manufacturing positions, this is displacing much of the male working-population. Many children must begin working when they are still young, simply to provide for their family.

Children and young women are being forced by political, economic, and social factors to work for their families. Many families do not have enough to eat, and unskilled labor is hard to find. Therefore, they will too be characterized as unskilled labor. Any job is a blessing, so many young people with high stamina are forced into these manufacturing jobs, simply to provide for their families.

Socially, there is a problem in historical conceptions. Women in Third World societies have historically been the home-makers and the mothers. They never needed to work outside of the home because they already had a breadwinner, their husband. Many women are enjoying this new found freedom to work.

Many men can be seen in urban areas without jobs. There simply are not jobs available for them. The governments have no money to develop infrastructure-building jobs.

From Rosie the Riveter to the Global Assembly Line: American Women on the World Stage

C Discuss the obstacles facing these women in asserting their rights to form unions and to secure better wages and working conditions. Men discriminate against these women because they are displacing them and taking their jobs.

It is hard to like someone when they are threatening to your job. However, I see women as a motivating factor, provoking men to enhance their skills to be the most qualified. In third world countries, this is not the motivating behind discrimination of women.

The governments try to keep wages as low as possible. The government must then support whatever the corporations want so they will remain in the LDC.

If they are suspected of aspiring to form a worker's union, they will be fired or punished. They are in desperate need of their job to survive, being fired is their worst fear. Free Trade A Present briefly but carefully the central points of the neoclassical case for free trade. Neoclassical economists believe that free trade is best. It is quite simple to see their argument.

If a country is endowed with certain advantages i. Before trade, the US will produce an equal number of units of clothing and computers.

Drawing Closer Together

The situation is also the same in Mexico, they will produce equal amounts of each. After trade, the US will produce more computers and export them to Mexico in exchange for clothing, which is cheaper to buy from Mexico than it is to produce in the US.

Mexico will to the opposite, by producing more clothing, exporting them to the US, and importing computers that are cheaper to buy than to produce. But, in fact there are many industries and occupations.

If America concentrates its employment in the industries and occupations it does best, American wages can remain far above Mexican wages for a long time -- even though the two nations trade freely. This is because as a country becomes more accustomed to producing one product, rather than two, it becomes better or more specialized at it. Another aspect of the Neoclassical view is that wages are directly correlated with productivity DeMartino, Oct. Proof of this philosophy is represented by the United States workforce.

So in general, neoclassical economists believe that free trade promotes specialization; increases the size of the market and altogether promotes efficiency. B Present the arguments that are sometimes made in favor of protectionism, and the neoclassical rebuttal to these arguments. Protectionism is a very controversial topic in the US today. High-cost producers, who would otherwise succumb to competition, are able to survive. Most foreign countries today have protectionist policies against the US.

That is, they have high tariffs to protect their industries from our lower prices. Three characteristics in support of protectionism are: It is very politically popular. The benefits are concentrated. The consequences are widespread, diffused, and very small per capita. Firms doing business here in the US support it because protectionism raises prices of imports, making them more expensive than domestic goods. Therefore, US goods are in higher demand due to lower prices.

Politicians often support protectionism to obtain votes.

Women and the Global Assembly Line

Votes are cast by citizens who are ignorant of the long-term effects of protectionism. They think that it is better to buy American. When looking through the eyes of the Global Marketplace, protectionism is bad. Thus protectionism is a peculiar form of welfare for corporations that not only raises prices to consumers, but also make American industry more slovenly and less productive. They cannot compete in the global marketplace due to factors such as: In other countries it may be cheaper to produce the same product, thus the US firm cries for help from the government so as to make them more competitive.

Ironically, one factor contributing to the plight of our auto industry in 1981 was that the US government was protecting a variety of industries -- like steel, textiles, and ball bearings -- that sell their wares to automobile manufacturers, thereby foisting high costs on our auto industry.

  • From a twenty-first century vantage point, we can look back over the decades and see how intimately connected the changes in American women's lives have been with events unfolding on the world stage and how little of what happens to women in the United States is unconnected to larger global forces;
  • Any job is a blessing, so many young people with high stamina are forced into these manufacturing jobs, simply to provide for their families;
  • The plants are usually steaming hot and the factory air mixes with dust causing massive respiratory problems, rashes, and skin disorders;
  • Within the beleaguered union movement, in the peace movement, in the remnants of the women's movement, in the vilified Communist Party, in the homophile movement that sought acceptance for lesbian and gay Americans, women fought for social change despite the proclaimed contentment of the era;
  • Politicians often support protectionism to obtain votes.

They are more worried about their own well-being, rather than the US as a whole, or even their industry. They cannot look at their long-term positions because they are struggling to survive in the short-term.

  1. The social protest movements of the 1960s had their roots in the tensions and contradictions of the 1950s. A decade later, the revelation of the "feminization of poverty" both in the United States and globally called attention to the economic impact of discrimination against women, the sexual division of labor, the wage gap between women and men, and women's responsibility for rearing children.
  2. It is very difficult to take a step back and view the long-term effects when we, as a society, live in the short-term. Feminism as a world view emphasizing the equal worth of women and men; a recognition of male privilege; an understanding of the ways that gender intersects with race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, ability, and other forms of difference; and a commitment to work for social justice found footholds everywhere.
  3. The WIDF, in contrast, although founded in Paris and supported from the Soviet Union, won adherents throughout the Third World through its commitment to "win and defend national independence and democratic freedoms, eliminate apartheid, racial discrimination and fascism"2. University of Illinois Press, 1997 , 137.
  4. What happens to women's traditional work in agriculture or trade when international lending agencies require a country to gear its economy for the world market?
  5. This is not enough money to pay for one days worth of rent yet alone medical expenses, food for a family, and clothing. The situation of women in labor markets bears great resemblance to that of migrants.

Many industries are strong enough to look into the long-term i. When we slapped a quota on textile imports from China in 1983, the Chinese reacted by reducing their imports of American chemicals and farm products.

When we raised the duties on specialty steel imported from Europe in 1983, the Common Market countered by imposing trade restrictions on American rifles, burglar alarms, and skis among other things. It is all a cycle, showing that protectionism does nothing but hurt the economy as a whole. Once again you can see that the narrow-mindedness of US firms ends up hurting the economy as a whole. Global competition must be established over a long period of time.

  • University Press of New England, 1991;
  • Perhaps the most ironic part of the garment industry working for Liz Claiborne is that her company advocates the "Liz Claiborne Code of Conduct;
  • Women are rapidly displacing men in unskilled labor;
  • The turmoil of the 1960s sparked renewed activism by women all around the globe, although feminist movements almost everywhere had roots reaching back to earlier struggles by women for education, civil and political rights, employment opportunities, and other legal and social changes;
  • Women are rapidly displacing men in unskilled labor;
  • These are the questions with which transnational feminism grapples.

We must seek to understand the long-term goals of the global economy. Thus, when all is said and done, protecting favored American industries from foreign competition winds up subjecting unfavored industries to even more fearsome foreign competition. Suppose we are successful in restricting imports. As the dollar becomes scarcer, its price naturally rises relative to other currencies. At that point the unprotected industries start to suffer. American exports then sag. C Evaluate the debate over protectionism i.

I think protectionism will exist into the future. Corporations are very successful at motivating the government to help them profit. Protectionism is also viewed by many as good, mainly because they do not fully understand the global economy.

It is very difficult to take a step back and view the long-term effects when we, as a society, live in the short-term. Americans use credit for everything, from college to lunch -- anything goes. This could entail any of the following: Income Protection DeMartino, Oct. This would entail a sort of program to keep wages high for American workers, regardless of foreign competition.

  • What the American consumer rarely knows about is the horrific and degrading working conditions that the laborers endured to produce that jacket;
  • When they acquire jobs, the members of both groups are often seen with suspicion and hostility, as it is presumed that they compete unfairly against the members of a predominantly male working class;
  • They cannot compete in the global marketplace due to factors such as;
  • Absences for any reason, even medical emergencies, are not reason enough to not attend work;
  • In other countries it may be cheaper to produce the same product, thus the US firm cries for help from the government so as to make them more competitive.