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The founding fathers principle about the correlation of peoples lives with books

In what follows, I will summarize the central arguments presented in the Letter, followed by the arguments presented in the Treatise. Following the summaries, I will demonstrate the influence that these works had on the thinking of the founding fathers and the political documents they created. Although not strictly a political work, "A Letter Concerning Toleration" presents a view of the means of understanding moral truths that has strong political implications.

For although its specific focus is the separation of church and state, in essence it deals with a much wider issue, which is that it is impossible for the state to compel moral behavior.

  1. Whatever is beyond this is more than his share, and belongs to others.
  2. Further, since this relationship only exists between an individual mind and reality, political leaders are in no superior position to grasp the truth than any other men are, and therefore have no right to even attempt to force their opinions on others. Developing Locke's arguments in general, and his argument for private property in particular, James Madison, the primary architect of the constitution, wrote that the major purpose of government is "the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property.
  3. Political power entails the right to make laws backed by the threat of force. Whatsoever, then, he removes out of the state that Nature hath provided and left it in, he hath mixed his labor with it, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property.
  4. Such laws are not arbitrary, since "nobody can transfer to another [i. Whatever is beyond this is more than his share, and belongs to others.

Thus, when more broadly applied, it provides a philosophic foundation for free speech and for the freedom of action that follows from free thought. In the letter, Locke maintains that there must be an absolute separation between the church and the state, that "the whole jurisdiction of the magistrate reaches only to … civil concernments," so that "neither can nor ought [it] in any manner to be extended to the salvation of souls. Confiscation of estate, imprisonment, torments, nothing of that nature can have any such efficacy as to make men change the inward judgment that they have framed of things… It is only light and evidence that can work a change in men's opinions…" In other words, a human understanding of truth requires a volitional relationship between an individual mind and reality, which in turn requires political freedom.

Locke's argument for the separation between church and state is in essence an argument for the separation of government force and mind. Further, since this relationship only exists between an individual mind and reality, political leaders are in no superior position to grasp the truth than any other men are, and therefore have no right to even attempt to force their opinions on others.

Finally, Locke maintains that there must be a separation between church and state since the state exists not to enforce public morality, but to protect man's rights from being violated by other men. The reason is because they are not prejudicial to other men's rights, nor do they break the public peace of societies… the business of laws is not to provide for the truth of opinions, but for the safety and security of the commonwealth and of every particular man's goods and person…" A year after publishing "A Letter Concerning Toleration," Locke published "The Second Treatise On Civil Government.

Political power entails the right to make laws backed by the threat of force. There is no way to prove that one has a right to hold political power by reference to one's ancestry.

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Since forming a government on such a basis leads to rule by brute force, and consequently, to civil disorder, another way must be found to choose political leaders, one derived from an understanding of men's relationships to each other before the existence of government, i. In a state of nature, each man, as the possessor of reason and free will, is cognitively independent and equal, and so, by implication, politically independent and equal. According to Locke, "being furnished with like faculties, sharing all in one community of Nature, there cannot be supposed any such subordination among us that may authorize us to destroy one another.

Thus, according to Locke, the basis of the equality, independence, and ultimately, the freedom that exists between all individual men is their mutual possession of reason. As an example of this principle, he notes that children do not possess the freedoms possessed by adults until they have reached the age whereby their reason has developed: It must be noted that although the foregoing provides a secular or "natural" defense of rights, the ultimate defense of rights, according to Locke, is religious: This right is rooted in Locke's premise that "god, who hath given the world to men in common, hath also given them reason to make use of it to the best advantage of life and convenience.

Though the earth and all inferior creatures be common to all men, yet every man has a "property" in his own "person.

The "labor" of his body and the "work" of his hands, we may say, are properly his. Whatsoever, then, he removes out of the state that Nature hath provided and left it in, he hath mixed his labor with it, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property.

It being by him removed from the common state nature placed it in, it hath by this labor something annexed to it that excludes the common right of other men.

  1. The "labor" of his body and the "work" of his hands, we may say, are properly his.
  2. For liberty is to be free from restraint and violence from others, which cannot be where there is no law.
  3. According to Locke, "being furnished with like faculties, sharing all in one community of Nature, there cannot be supposed any such subordination among us that may authorize us to destroy one another. As the author of the document that states the fundamental values for the attainment of which the United States of America was created, Thomas Jefferson is the most fundamental source of American political ideology.
  4. Further, since this relationship only exists between an individual mind and reality, political leaders are in no superior position to grasp the truth than any other men are, and therefore have no right to even attempt to force their opinions on others.
  5. Such laws are not arbitrary, since "nobody can transfer to another [i. According to Locke, "being furnished with like faculties, sharing all in one community of Nature, there cannot be supposed any such subordination among us that may authorize us to destroy one another.

For this "labor" being the unquestionable property of the laborer, no man but he can have a right to what that is once joined to… " Property belongs to those who, by their labor, bring such property into being, since "God gave the world… to the use of the industrious and rational and labor was to be his title to it ; not to the fancy or covetousness of the quarrelsome and contentious.

Rather, it is limited to "as much as any one can make use of to any advantage of life before it spoils, so much he may by his labor fix a property in. Whatever is beyond this is more than his share, and belongs to others. Nothing was made by God for man to spoil or destroy.

  • Such laws are not arbitrary, since "nobody can transfer to another [i;
  • In a state of nature, each man, as the possessor of reason and free will, is cognitively independent and equal, and so, by implication, politically independent and equal;
  • Since forming a government on such a basis leads to rule by brute force, and consequently, to civil disorder, another way must be found to choose political leaders, one derived from an understanding of men's relationships to each other before the existence of government, i;
  • They do this in order to acquire mutual protection of their "lives, liberties, and estates" from those who in a state of nature would be of danger to them, by means of placing the retaliatory use of physical force in under "established, settled, known law," interpreted by an "indifferent judge," with the "power to support the sentence when right.

They do this in order to acquire mutual protection of their "lives, liberties, and estates" from those who in a state of nature would be of danger to them, by means of placing the retaliatory use of physical force in under "established, settled, known law," interpreted by an "indifferent judge," with the "power to support the sentence when right.

For "where there is no law, there is no freedom. For liberty is to be free from restraint and violence from others, which cannot be where there is no law. Such laws are not arbitrary, since "nobody can transfer to another [i.

By "agreeing with other men, to join and unite into a community for their comfortable, safe, and peaceable living, one amongst another, in a secure enjoyment of their properties, and a greater security against any that are not of it," such men have given their "express consent" to the government of such a community. In addition, any man who is born within a particular government and accepts the protection provided by it, thereby gives a "tacit consent" as to the legitimacy of that government.

In Locke's conception, a proper government exercises three distinct and separate powers, the "legislative, executive, and federative power of the commonwealth. First, those exercising the legislative power are chosen and appointed by the citizens. Second, they govern by "declared and received laws [i. As the author of the document that states the fundamental values for the attainment of which the United States of America was created, Thomas Jefferson is the most fundamental source of American political ideology.

It is therefore significant that Jefferson considered Locke along with Bacon and Newton to be one of "the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical and Moral sciences.

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And what it consists of, by and large, is a condensation of the opening of "The Virginia Declaration of Rights," written one month earlier by George Mason, which is itself a condensation of nearly all of the major points of the Second Treatise. As a condensation of a condensation, made by the best writer from among the founding fathers, the wording of the Declaration is eloquent and concise in its statement of Locke's ideas. Just as Locke maintains that in the state of nature all men are enjoy a freedom and equality, and Mason maintains that "all men are by nature equally free and independent," Jefferson, having earlier made reference to "the laws of nature," maintains that "all men are created equal.

And since the Constitution provides a bridge between the principles of political philosophy and the principles of law, Locke's influence also pervades it, though less directly. Developing Locke's arguments in general, and his argument for private property in particular, James Madison, the primary architect of the constitution, wrote that the major purpose of government is "the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property.

Reducing the tenure in office by means of frequent elections was necessary, according to James Mason, because "all power was originally lodged in, and consequently is derived from, the people.

  • Locke's argument for the separation between church and state is in essence an argument for the separation of government force and mind;
  • Whatsoever, then, he removes out of the state that Nature hath provided and left it in, he hath mixed his labor with it, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property;
  • Since forming a government on such a basis leads to rule by brute force, and consequently, to civil disorder, another way must be found to choose political leaders, one derived from an understanding of men's relationships to each other before the existence of government, i;
  • Following the summaries, I will demonstrate the influence that these works had on the thinking of the founding fathers and the political documents they created;
  • According to Locke, "being furnished with like faculties, sharing all in one community of Nature, there cannot be supposed any such subordination among us that may authorize us to destroy one another;
  • It must be noted that although the foregoing provides a secular or "natural" defense of rights, the ultimate defense of rights, according to Locke, is religious:

For example, Madison argues that religious choices "can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence. But it does me no injury for my neighbor to say there are twenty gods, or no god. It neither picks my pocket nor breaks my leg. This error however at length prevailed, the earth became a globe…" As all of the above should make abundantly clear, John Locke was the intellectual founding father of the United States of America, without whose ideas there would have been neither a revolution, nor a revolutionary ideology of political freedom to implement at that revolution's conclusion.

It is fundamentally to him that America, and the world, should owe its gratitude for such political and economic freedom as has existed in the past few centuries, as well as for the ideas, art, and material prosperity that that freedom has made possible.