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The impact of the liberation theology on the perception of the vatican church

It helped many of the poor in Latin America to create their own self-reliant communities, although it did not really mean socio-political revolution. Liberation theology bequeathed Marxist elements to black theology in the United States of America.

It helped minjung theology theology of people in Korea and Dalit theology theology of the untouchable in India to emerge. It built a considerable base, when it was connected with the Marxist-led Sandinista government of Nicaragua in the 1980s.

More recently, some prominent political leaders in Latin America such as President Rafaek Correa of Ecuador are said to be sympathetic to liberation theology, presenting some challenge to the establishment. But the basically secular orientation of liberation theology is considered not to have appealed as much to the poor in Latin America, most of whom are rather religious and pious in nature.

Especially after the decline of communismliberation theology is readjusting itself to the changing situation of the world. Development of Liberation Theology Roots of liberation theology Liberation theology in Latin America is rooted in both the far and the recent past. Liberation theology is also rooted in at least three more things that were more recent: CELAM II condemned extreme inequality among the social classes, unjust use of power, what it called "institutionalized violence," exploitive trade policies, and the Church's alliance with the ruling class.

It also decided that the call to "liberation" is integral to the mission of the Church. The pope actually tried to steer a conciliatory middle course during his opening speech, expressing his concern not only about the radicalism of liberation theology but also about the unjust condition of the poor. For while saying, "this conception of Christ as a political figure, a revolutionary, as the subversive of Nazareth, does not tally with the Church's catechisms," he also referred to "the ever increasing wealth of the rich at the expense of the ever increasing poverty of the poor," stating that the principle of private property "must lead to a more just and equitable distribution of goods.

According to critics, 25 percent of the final Puebla documents were written by those theologians who had not even been invited to the conference. It must be true, because in the end the conference endorsed the idea of God 's "preferential option for the poor" as part of the quest for justice and criticized the military dictatorships of Latin America as "institutionalized violence.

He opted for the "liberation" approach, therefore, calling for radical structural and social change. This undoubtedly reflected a use of Marxism not only as a tool of social analysis but also as a program for changing society. Praxis as commitment to this liberation should precede any theoretical reflection in theology.

  1. More recently, some prominent political leaders in Latin America such as President Rafaek Correa of Ecuador are said to be sympathetic to liberation theology, presenting some challenge to the establishment.
  2. More recently, the influence of liberation theology still exists in Latin America, still posing a challenge to the Vatican and the existing establishment.
  3. James Cone admits that his interest in Marxism for social and economic change was renewed in the late 1970s through contact with Latin American liberation theology.

Even the use of violence by the oppressed should be permitted for the purpose of liberation, and it should not be equated with the unjust violence of the oppressor. The conventional double standard on violence which assumes that the violence of the oppressor to maintain order is good, but that that of the oppressed to change the order is bad, should be rejected. The political dimension of his gospel as the liberator of the oppressed "goes to the very root of human existence: Sin is, therefore, defined as the loss of the basic relationship of solidarity of God and human beings; it is "a social, historical fact, the absence of fellowship and love in relationships among persons, the breach of friendship with God and with other persons, and, therefore, an interior, personal fracture.

The Kingdom of God is where this salvation is realized as the reestablishment of justice in this world. He refers to it as the source of Christian joy. Juan Luis Segundo 1925-1997a Jesuit from Uruguaywas famous for his hermeneutical treatment of the Bible from the perspective of liberation and yet with an emphasis on the primacy of the Bible. His main work was The Liberation of Theology. This, expressed in his Ecclesiogenesis, [9] reflects a result of the historical-critical biblical scholarship.

A prolific writer, he has written more than 100 books including Church: Charism and Power, a book on ecclesiologywhich was perceived to be defiant and militant in the eyes of the Vatican. There are also some liberation theologians with Protestant background. It promoted awareness that the poor and impoverished can struggle for change instead of continuing to live in poverty.

That awareness led to three general types of action or praxis, aimed at changing the situation. Liberationists stood for social revolution, and the Catholic Church and dominant political powers feared revolution and preached peaceful transformation. By contrast, many Latin Americans in base communities, simply created parallel societies, their own communities, instead of necessarily following the option of social revolution.

They learned self-reliance, hygiene, and various skills from priests and social workers, and then from one another. In The Other Path as opposed to the Maoist guerrilla movement Sendero Luminoso, "Shining Path," in PeruHernando de Soto documented the growth of the informal economy around Lima, in which entire communities were built, roads were paved, and people prospered the impact of the liberation theology on the perception of the vatican church the formal economy.

Officially squatters, some of Peru's impoverished had created middle-class and upper middle-class lives by "pulling up their own bootstraps. Protestant theologians watching the internecine Catholic disputes tended to champion their brothers who were repeating some of Martin Luther 's criticisms four centuries earlier.

So, liberation theology has been recognized within liberal Protestant circles as an important school of thought, enjoying equal standing with other contemporary schools of theology such as black theology and feminist theology.

  • Ratzinger declared that the influence of Marxism was proven by the predominance accorded to orthopraxis over orthodoxy;
  • Liberation theologians believed that God speaks particularly through the poor and that the Bible can be understood only when seen from the perspective of the poor;
  • This, expressed in his Ecclesiogenesis, [9] reflects a result of the historical-critical biblical scholarship.

But, another Protestant response to the perceived Catholic complicity with the established order in Latin America was massive conversions to Protestantism in the 1970s and 1980s. The Protestantism being taught in Latin America emphasized an ethic of self-reliance and greater equality between men and women.

Many women became Protestants, seeking a life in which the "machismo" mentality common in males was not endorsed. Protestantism was another path to possible social advancement.

Black theology emerged in response to the problem of racism in the United States of America around the same time as liberation theology in Latin America. Although the two different schools emerged independently of each other because their roots were different, they had something in common: Therefore, there started dialogue, communication, and cooperation between them.

One example was a symposium on black theology and Latin American liberation theology, which took place in GenevaSwitzerland in 1973. It was under the influence of Latin American liberation theology that black theology started to adopt Marxism, which otherwise had been negatively treated by black theologians as merely atheistsectarian, and even racist because of its connection with white Russians.

James Cone admits that his interest in Marxism for social and economic change was renewed in the late 1970s through contact with Latin American liberation the impact of the liberation theology on the perception of the vatican church.

Liberation theology built a considerable base, when it was connected with the Marxist-led Sandinista government of Nicaragua in the 1980s. More recently, the influence of liberation theology still exists in Latin America, still posing a challenge to the Vatican and the existing establishment. The presence of liberation theology especially in poorer areas of Brazil such as the Amazon is unquestionable. In 2008, the former Bishop Fernando Lugo, a liberation theologian, was elected as President of Paraguay.

So, Cardinal Samore, in charge of the relations between the Roman Curia and the CELAM as the leader of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America from 1967 to 1983, was naturally ordered to put a stop to the orientation of liberation theology judged antithetical to the Catholic Church 's teachings. In fact, the idea of God 's "preferential option for the poor" endorsed by liberation theology is not new; rooted in the biblical notion of justice for the voiceless and powerless among us such as widows and orphansit has a long tradition within Christianity.

How broad and inclusive is the notion of liberation? While liberation theology understands the notion to be social and political, the Bible would include in it not only this external sense but also the spiritual sense in which people are supposed to be liberated from the bondage of sin.

Hence, at CELAM III John Paul II proclaimed "liberation in its deeper, fuller sense," namely, "liberation from everything that oppresses human beings, but especially liberation from sin and the evil one, in the joy of knowing God and being known by him. Ratzinger declared that the influence of Marxism was proven by the predominance accorded to orthopraxis over orthodoxy.

Liberation theology

Finally, he stated that these ideas would support similar class conflict inside the Church, and the rejection of its hierarchy. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith under Ratzinger officially condemned liberation theology twice in 1984 and 1986issuing "Instruction on Certain Aspects of the 'Theology of Liberation'" 1984 [18] and "Instruction on Christian Freedom and Liberation" 1986.

The 1986 instruction showed a bit more sympathy to liberation theologians. Charism and Power, which was perceived to have presented a very radical ecclesiology. He was almost silenced again in 1992, in an attempt to prevent him from attending the Eco-92 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, but this led him to leave the Franciscan order and the priesthood.

Also, some other dissident priests were prohibited from teaching their doctrines in the name of the Catholic Church.

Catholic church warms to liberation theology as founder heads to Vatican

It has been found out that most of the poor in Latin America are by nature too religious and pious to accept liberation theology's radical program for social revolution, and that they have been interested mainly in pursuing their own parallel societies.

So, liberationists have had to "shake" them instead of listening to them: After the rapid decline of communism since the end of 1980s, liberation theology seems to have been in retreat. In spite of the continuous presence of the movement, it seems to have become more skeptical of Marxism, now redirecting its "central concerns away from politics in the narrow sense to issues of popular religion, spirituality, and long-term social and cultural change.

Liberation theology, of course, still stirs controversies today. For example, Jon Sobrino received worldwide attention in 2007, when his humanistic view of Jesus based on what he called the "Church of the poor" elicited from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith a notification that stated that it is erroneous and dangerous. Other things that are still challenging the Vatican include: Nevertheless, the movement's struggle with the Vatican has definitely decreased, and its original program for radical revolution may have waned.

Pedagogy of the Oppressed. A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, and Salvation, revised ed.