Homeworks academic service


The influence of jazz musicians on the civil rights movement

It focuses on the exploitation of black jazz musicians by whites in the industry and looks at whether black musicians benefited at all from their innovations. Despite the negative social conditions that blacks faced, some blacks were still able to benefit and gained respect, stardom, and recognition for being the inventors of jazz music.

This message is profoundly expressed in jazz music. In the 1920s, jazz experienced a rise in popularity when the music began to spread through recordings.

Songs Of The Civil Rights Movement

Some black jazz musicians believe that they were ripped off financially and that they did not get full recognition and compensation for being the inventors of jazz as African American culture. Furthermore, some people oppose the idea that jazz was invented by blacks.

Jazz music as such became more of a commodity than an art and the highest achievers were white. Music is essential to the African American experience in the United States.

  • Is it necessary to be a musician or to know music technically in order to write about it or use it in poetry and fiction?
  • Jazz began to penetrate the music programs of high schools, colleges and universities right after World War II, and in 1968, the International Association of Jazz Education was formed Wheaton, 1994;
  • Are audiences supposed to feel freer?
  • You must, of course, play jazz for your students if you are to succeed in teaching them about the relationship between jazz and African American literature;
  • This latter tension was especially felt during the 1950s and 1960s, when racial discord in the United States was more pronounced because of the civil rights movement, the violence it spawned, and the intensely politicized battle over the re-definition of race and the end of white hegemony in the United States and around the colonized world at the time;
  • It is good to begin by asking students if most people like music, if so, why do they like it.

Faced with racism, discrimination, and segregation, blacks have always found comfort and a sense of peace in their music. Music continues to be a means by which the anger, grief, compassion and desire for change is transformed into positive energy for blacks Dawson, 2001.

Today, the social conditions facing American popular music, especially rap, are analogous to those faced by jazz music, and many musicians have similar experiences.

Jazz Music and the Civil Rights Movement

Despite the fact that jazz music has created some positive social effects, it has created more negative ones for black jazz musicians, such as exploitation and jazz appropriation, some of which are still occurring today. In order to understand the social effects of jazz music, there must be an understanding of how this music came into existence.

I will then discuss the positive and the negative effects jazz had on black jazz musicians. Jazz developed from Afro-American music which included: Dorsey 2001 believes that black music and black musical accomplishments have been rooted in the continent of Africa.

The same way Africans were able to spontaneously invent a piece of music or beat, sometimes without any instruments, black jazz musicians are able to incorporate some of these features in their music.

The improvisational style of the latter is very much influenced by the former, and is a unique feature of jazz music. Furthermore, jazz is considered an integral part of African American culture. Peretti 1992 too states that jazz obtained its musical identity from the African and European traditions.

Jazz categories include Dixieland, swing, bop, cool jazz, hard bop, free jazz, Third Stream, jazz-rock, and fusion Wheaton, 1994. The first jazz-style to receive recognition as a fine art was bebop, which is mainly instrumental and was formed by serious black jazz musicians who experimented with new ideas in the late night jam sessions Wheaton, 1994. Bebop evolved in the 1940s and was said to have been created by blacks in a way that whites could not copy Gerard, 1998.

MODERATORS

The history of jazz proves that black musicians are the inventors and innovators of jazz, and that has been a major accomplishment of blacks. Mackey 1992 believes that blacks were cheated out of their invention of jazz music.

In other words, commercial success was only obtained by whites. Blacks were basically locked out of it. Yet most white jazz musicians did not have the improvisational skills or originality that the black musicians displayed in their music. He improvises, he creates. Textbook writer Frank Tirro writes: Because of the western influences and American band traditions in jazz, some people believe that it does not simply belong to African Americans. Hall is indeed acknowledging that blacks invented jazz, but he does not feel that whites have stolen it, even if whites imitated the various jazz styles created by blacks and became wealthy as a result.

Upward social mobility among black jazz musicians is a very significant factor, though it was not common. Opportunities were given to black musicians by the radio and recording industry and popular black bands were promoted as long as there was a demand for jazz music by white Americans Gerard, 1998. However, Mackey 1992 believes that there was a containment of black mobility on the political level and that the social and economic progress blacks might have accumulated because of their artistic innovation was blocked by whites.

Black jazz musicians were primarily from the lower class. Benny Goodman, a white jazz bandleader, brought to stardom Teddy Wilson, Lionel Hampton and Charlie Christian, but still encountered criticism for benefiting from their talents; a few other black jazz musicians, including Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, made a lot of money Gerard, 1998.

Jazz music has created a sense of integration between blacks and whites in the industry.

The Rules, in Brief

Discrimination still existed, but in the jazz community, musicians were somehow considered as equals. Whites were hired to perform in several black bands and the white trombonist Roswell Rudd was introduced to jazz audiences by Archie Shepp Gerard, 1998.

Jazz music has not only integrated people in the United States, but also brought them together internationally. Today, jazz music is progressing in many ways. Despite its economic decline and struggle to survive because of the developed wealth of rock and pop, there have been many opportunities for the survival of jazz.

Jazz began to penetrate the music programs of high schools, colleges and universities right after World War II, and in 1968, the International Association of Jazz Education was formed Wheaton, 1994. Jazz has also gotten much recognition in the United States and around the world through jazz festivals.

  • Ellison himself studied both composition and trumpet as a student in his hometown of Oklahoma City and at Tuskegee Institute, where, in fact, he majored in music;
  • This has created two forms of tensions within jazz;
  • Yet most white jazz musicians did not have the improvisational skills or originality that the black musicians displayed in their music.

Overseas festivals have been more successful than festivals in the United States; in places like Switzerland, the Netherlands and Italy, jazz festivals have all broken records for attendance Wheaten, 1994. Now that the positive social effects of jazz have been clarified, I will present the negative effects.

The recording industry has played a major role in the commercialization of jazz music, which has led to uniformity. Jazz music would not have been widely distributed to the general public without the recording industry, and it provided a perfect opportunity for making the music more marketable.

As a result, blacks were socially affected, and according to Means 1968they had limited opportunities to showcase their originality and were forced to create music that appealed only to whites. However, white bands had a sense of sameness that was more marketable. Jazz became so commercialized that the industry was less dependent on black innovation, but rather produced a music that was lacking the essence of jazz—its improvisation.

Swing music basically lacked creativity and distinction and as a result, swing bands sounded alike. Black jazz musicians were less credited for their invention and innovation of jazz music. Jazz music created a sense of identity, originality, and social cohesion among black musicians, but they were seldom credited with inventing it.

African American Facts

Kofsky 1998 believes that this refusal of whites to credit blacks is because they refused to equate anything valuable with African Americans. In addition, whites became more famous than blacks because of their unwillingness to give blacks credit for their talents. Again this social effect of jazz was a result of greed by whites, and it created anger, fear and resentment among black jazz musicians. While whites in the jazz music industry got rich, black musicians did not reap equal benefits.

The industry caused a great deal of exploitation and discrimination by whites against blacks. Do you see any of us running any record companies, booking agencies, radio stations, music magazines? Because of this power and contempt for black art, blacks were likely to suffer and the recording industry basically determined the economic success or failure of an artist. White musicians who benefited from the talent of black musicians were labeled exploiters and for the financial gain they drew from the music, they were called thieves Gerard, 1998, p.

In other words, because of race, black jazz musicians have experienced great disadvantages throughout the history of jazz music Means, 1968.

  1. Whites were hired to perform in several black bands and the white trombonist Roswell Rudd was introduced to jazz audiences by Archie Shepp Gerard, 1998.
  2. It is clear that despite its humble origins among the lower classes, immigrants, and African Americans, jazz was never really a folk music; it professionalized and standardized itself fairly quickly, becoming highly sophisticated show and stage music within a half-dozen years of its initial arrival on sound recording in 1917. Whites were hired to perform in several black bands and the white trombonist Roswell Rudd was introduced to jazz audiences by Archie Shepp Gerard, 1998.
  3. He has also written four novels as part of a series about a fictional Los Angeles musical collective called The Mystic Horns. How does music affect human emotions?

Furthermore, the jazz music industry contributed a great deal to the continuous victimization of blacks. Whites continued to exploit black jazz musicians for financial gain, even in death. Evidently he was more interested in promoting his fame and fortune than paying respect to the dead. However, Hammond frequently referred to himself as being the protector of black artists to increase his reputation Kofsky. Another social effect that was pivotal in jazz was the social stigma associated with the music, not only by whites, but also by blacks.

This stigma created an environment for black exploitation because jazz was considered black folk music. The stigma consisted of a belief held by whites that the tradition of African American music was not art, but was rather artistically worthless, trivial and only tolerated for profitability Levine, 1989.

Peretti 1992 also states that the exploitation of that era was typical and was only for the purpose of profitability. However, in the twentieth century, while jazz was being rejected in the United States, African American jazz musicians received many opportunities overseas.

  • You might point out to them that research has shown that people form their musical taste in adolescence and that by early adulthood the taste one has in music is, by and large, complete and will remain the same for the rest of your life with very little change and very little openness to new music;
  • Johnson , and arranger Quincy Jones were all innovators of or highly influenced by chord structures that were far more virtuosic and modernistic than swing;
  • When the current artists are fifty or sixty years old, they will very likely be making music that is similar to what they made while in their 20s and 30s;
  • The same way Africans were able to spontaneously invent a piece of music or beat, sometimes without any instruments, black jazz musicians are able to incorporate some of these features in their music.

Their artistic ability was acknowledged and encouraged and they discovered that segregation was not widespread Ross, 2001. One must wonder what brought on this negative view of jazz among blacks. Was it the race factor? Means relates the views of E. Franklin Frazier and LeRoi Jones, who believed the main reason was that middle class blacks wanted to fit into white society. They repudiated jazz because they thought it was too much a part of black slave heritage Means.

Individual blacks have tried to assimilate into the American mainstream by achieving high levels of education; however, assuming the mainstream culture meant abandoning or destroying their own culture Baskerville, 2003. Gerard 1998 adds that black musicians and the black middle class ceased to be ashamed of their culture with the civil rights movement and became proud of jazz music.

Jazz music has not only created negative social conditions, but has also been a force for racial integration, respect, and social mobility. Social mobility proves to be a very significant factor because it showcases a similarity between black jazz musicians and black rap artists in terms of their accomplishments in obtaining wealth and stardom because of the invention of their music. Jazz should be given more recognition and should be studied in more high schools and colleges in the United States so that students, particularly black students, can be educated about its origins.

The origins of jazz music have been in much dispute and have caused many controversies. Though people may argue that jazz music was not exclusively invented by blacks, the fact remains that the great innovators of the music are indeed blacks. As classical music is clearly European, jazz music should undoubtedly be considered African-American music. The impact of black nationalist ideology on American jazz music of the 1960s and 1970s.

Can you sing jazz? Perception and appreciation of jazz music among African American young adults. Social and philosophical examinations of black expressive behavior pp. Jazz in black and white: Race, culture, and identity in the jazz community. Black music, white music: The influence of jazz musicians on the civil rights movement the history and political economy of jazz. Jazz and American culture. The Journal of American Folklore, 102 4036-22.

From noun to verb. Notes on Negro jazz:

  1. Despite the fact that jazz music has created some positive social effects, it has created more negative ones for black jazz musicians, such as exploitation and jazz appropriation, some of which are still occurring today.
  2. The Journal of American Folklore, 102 403 , 6-22.
  3. The 1960s was the era of the Black Arts Movement , when younger black writers, fired by both Black Nationalism and Marxism, wrote passionately for race solidarity and denounced not only racism but virtually everything white. Jazz's literary influence comes after World War II.
  4. Jazz musicians in postwar Europe and Japan.
  5. Visual artists and writers were frequently inspired by jazz, many thinking its sense of spontaneity, its dissonance, its anti-bourgeois attitude embodied compelling aspects of modernism.