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The issues related to anthony burgess a clockwork orange

Plot summary[ edit ] Part 1: Alex's world[ edit ] Alex is a 15-year-old living in near-future dystopian England who leads his gang on a night of opportunistic, random "ultra-violence".

  • One of Alex's doctors explains the language to a colleague as "odd bits of old rhyming slang; a bit of gypsy talk, too;
  • As an unintended consequence , the soundtrack to one of the films, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony , renders Alex unable to enjoy his beloved classical music as before.

Alex's friends "droogs" in the novel's Anglo-Russian slang' Nadsat ' are Dim, a slow-witted bruiser who is the gang's muscle; Georgie, an ambitious second-in-command; and Pete, who mostly plays along as the droogs indulge their taste for ultra-violence.

Characterised as a sociopath and hardened juvenile delinquent, Alex also displays intelligence, quick wit, and a predilection for classical music ; he is particularly fond of Beethovenreferred to as "Lovely Ludwig Van".

The novella begins with the the issues related to anthony burgess a clockwork orange sitting in their favourite hangout, the Korova Milk Barand drinking "milk-plus" — a beverage consisting of milk laced with the customer's drug of choice — to prepare for a night of mayhem.

They assault a scholar walking home from the public library; rob a store, leaving the owner and his wife bloodied and unconscious; beat up a beggar; then scuffle with a rival gang.

Joyriding through the countryside in a stolen car, they break into an isolated cottage and terrorise the young couple living there, beating the husband and raping his wife. In a metafictional touch, the husband is a writer working on a manuscript called "A Clockwork Orange", and Alex contemptuously reads out a paragraph that states the novel's main theme before shredding the manuscript.

Back at the Korova, Alex strikes Dim for his crude response to a woman's singing of an operatic passage, and strains within the gang become apparent. At home in his parents' futuristic flat, Alex plays classical music at top volume, which he describes as giving him orgasmic bliss before falling asleep.

Alex coyly feigns illness to his parents to stay out of school the next day. Following an unexpected visit from P. Deltoid, his "post-corrective adviser", Alex visits a record store, where he meets two pre-teen girls. He invites them back to the flat, where he drugs and rapes them. The next morning, Alex finds his droogs in a mutinous mood, waiting downstairs in the torn-up and graffitied lobby. Georgie challenges Alex for leadership of the gang, demanding that they pull a "man-sized" job.

Alex quells the rebellion by slashing Dim's hand and fighting with Georgie. Then, in a show of generosity, he takes them to a bar, where Alex insists on following through on Georgie's idea to burgle the home of a wealthy elderly woman.

Alex breaks in and knocks the woman unconscious; but, when he opens the door to let the others in, Dim strikes him in payback for the earlier fight. The gang abandons Alex on the front step to be arrested by the police; while in custody, he learns that the woman has died from her injuries.

The Ludovico Technique[ edit ] Alex is convicted of murder and sentenced to 14 years in prison. His parents visit one day to inform him that Georgie has been killed in a botched robbery.

Two years into his term, he has obtained a job in one of the prison chapels, playing religious music on the stereo to accompany the Sunday religious services. The chaplain mistakes Alex's Bible studies for stirrings of faith; in reality, Alex is only reading Scripture for the violent passages.

After his fellow cellmates blame him for beating a troublesome cellmate to death, he is chosen to undergo an experimental behaviour-modification treatment called the Ludovico Technique in exchange for having the remainder of his sentence commuted.

  1. A year later in 1977 it was removed from high school classrooms in Westport, Massachusetts over similar concerns with "objectionable" language. She is given the name Miss Weathers in the film.
  2. His second explanation was that it was a pun on the Malay word orang, meaning "man.
  3. He is given the name Frank Alexander in the film.

The technique is a form of aversion therapyin which Alex is injected with nausea-inducing drugs while watching graphically violent films, eventually conditioning him to become severely ill at the mere thought of violence. As an unintended consequencethe soundtrack to one of the films, Beethoven's Fifth Symphonyrenders Alex unable to enjoy his beloved classical music as before.

The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated to a group of VIPswho watch as Alex collapses before a bully and abases himself before a scantily clad young woman whose presence has aroused his predatory sexual inclinations. Although the prison chaplain accuses the state of stripping Alex of free will, the government officials on the scene are pleased with the results and Alex is released from prison. After prison[ edit ] Alex returns to his parents' flat, only to find that they are letting his room to a lodger.

The old scholar whom Alex had assaulted in Part 1 finds him and beats him, with the help of several friends. Two policemen come to Alex's rescue, but they turn out to be Dim and Billyboy, a former rival gang leader. They take Alex outside of town, brutalise him, and abandon him there. Alex collapses at the door of an isolated cottage, realising too late that it is the one he and his droogs invaded in Part 1.

Alexander, still lives here, but his wife has since died of injuries she sustained in the gang rape. He does not recognise Alex but gives him shelter and questions him about the conditioning he has undergone.

Alexander and his colleagues, all highly critical of the government, plan to use Alex as a symbol of state brutality and thus prevent the incumbent government from being re-elected. Alex inadvertently reveals that he was the ringleader of the home invasion; he is removed from the cottage and locked in an upper-story bedroom as a relentless barrage of classical music plays over speakers. He attempts suicide by leaping from the window.

Alex wakes up in a hospital, where he is courted by government officials anxious to counter the bad publicity created by his suicide attempt. Placed in a mental institutionAlex is offered a well-paying job if he agrees to side with the government. A round of tests reveals that his old violent impulses have returned, indicating that the hospital doctors have undone the effects of his conditioning. As photographers snap pictures, Alex daydreams of orgiastic violence and reflects, "I was cured all right.

After a chance encounter with Pete, who has reformed and married, Alex finds himself taking less and less pleasure in acts of senseless violence. He begins contemplating giving up the issues related to anthony burgess a clockwork orange himself to become a productive member of society and start a family of his own, while reflecting on the notion that his own children could possibly end up being just as destructive as he has been, if not more so.

Omission of the final chapter[ edit ] The book has three parts, each with seven chapters. Burgess has stated that the total of 21 chapters was an intentional nod to the age of 21 being recognised as a milestone in human maturation. At the American publisher's insistence, Burgess allowed their editors to cut the redeeming final chapter from the U. The film adaptation, directed by Stanley Kubrickis based on the American edition of the book which Burgess considered to be "badly flawed".

Kubrick called Chapter 21 "an extra chapter" and claimed that he had not read the original version until he had virtually finished the screenplay, and that he had never given serious consideration to using it.

The novel's protagonist and leader among his droogs.

  • He seemingly has no clue about dealing with young people, and is devoid of empathy or understanding for his troublesome charge;
  • I've implied the junction of the organic, the lively, the sweet — in other words, life, the orange — and the mechanical, the cold, the disciplined;
  • Although the prison chaplain accuses the state of stripping Alex of free will, the government officials on the scene are pleased with the results and Alex is released from prison;
  • The chaplain mistakes Alex's Bible studies for stirrings of faith; in reality, Alex is only reading Scripture for the violent passages;
  • Characterised as a sociopath and hardened juvenile delinquent, Alex also displays intelligence, quick wit, and a predilection for classical music ; he is particularly fond of Beethoven , referred to as "Lovely Ludwig Van";
  • He begins contemplating giving up crime himself to become a productive member of society and start a family of his own, while reflecting on the notion that his own children could possibly end up being just as destructive as he has been, if not more so.

He often refers to himself as "Your Humble Narrator". Having coaxed two ten-year-old girls into his bedroom, Alex refers to himself as "Alexander the Large" while raping them; this was later the basis for Alex's claimed surname DeLarge in the 1971 film.

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George, Georgie or Georgie Boy: Effectively Alex's greedy second-in-command. Georgie attempts to undermine Alex's status as leader of the gang and take over their gang as the new leader. He is later killed during a botched robbery while Alex is in prison.

The only one who does not take particular sides when the droogs fight among themselves. He later meets and marries a girl named Georgina, renouncing his violent ways and even losing his former Nadsat speech patterns. A chance encounter with Pete in the final chapter influences Alex to realise that he has grown bored with violence and recognise that human energy is better expended on creation than destruction.

  • The negative physical stimulation takes the form of nausea and "feelings of terror," which are caused by an emetic medicine administered just before the presentation of the films;
  • Alex quells the rebellion by slashing Dim's hand and fighting with Georgie;
  • After his fellow cellmates blame him for beating a troublesome cellmate to death, he is chosen to undergo an experimental behaviour-modification treatment called the Ludovico Technique in exchange for having the remainder of his sentence commuted.

An idiotic and thoroughly gormless member of the gang, persistently condescended to by Alex, but respected to some extent by his droogs for his formidable fighting abilities, his weapon of choice being a length of bike chain. He later becomes a police officerexacting his revenge on Alex for the abuse he once suffered under his command. A criminal rehabilitation social worker assigned the task of keeping Alex on the straight and narrow.

He seemingly has no clue about dealing with young people, and is devoid of empathy or understanding for his troublesome charge. Indeed, when Alex is arrested for murdering an old woman and then ferociously beaten by several police officers, Deltoid simply spits on him.

What might have influenced Anthony Burgess' writing of A Clockwork Orange?

The character who first questions whether it is moral to turn a violent person into a behavioural automaton who can make no choice in such matters. This is the only character who is truly concerned about Alex's welfare; he is not taken seriously by Alex, though.

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He is nicknamed by Alex "prison charlie" or "chaplin", a pun on Charlie Chaplin. A rival of Alex's. Early on in the story, Alex and his droogs battle Billyboy and his droogs, which ends abruptly when the police arrive. Later, after Alex is released from prison, Billyboy along with Dim, who like Billyboy has become a police officer rescues Alex from a mob, then subsequently beats him in a location out of town. The man who decides to let Alex "choose" to be the first reformed by the Ludovico technique.

The Minister of the Interior: The government high-official who determined that the Ludovico's technique will be used to cut recidivism. He is referred to as the Inferior by Alex.

A scientist, co-developer of the Ludovico technique. He appears friendly and almost paternal towards Alex at first, before forcing him into the theatre and what Alex calls the "chair of torture". Branom's colleague and co-developer of the Ludovico technique. He seems much more passive than Branom and says considerably less.

An author who was in the process of typing his magnum opus A Clockwork Orange when Alex and his droogs broke into his house, beat him, tore up his work and then brutally gang-raped his wife, which caused her subsequent death.

He is left deeply scarred by these events and when he encounters Alex two years later, he uses him as a guinea pig in a sadistic experiment intended to prove the Ludovico technique unsound. He is given the name Frank Alexander in the film. An indirectly named woman who blocks Alex's gang's entrance scheme, and threatens to shoot Alex and set her cats on him if he does not leave. After Alex breaks into her house, she fights with him, ordering her cats to join the melee, but reprimands Alex for fighting them off.

She sustains a fatal blow to the head during the scuffle. She is given the name Miss Weathers in the the issues related to anthony burgess a clockwork orange. Background[ edit ] A Clockwork Orange was written in Hovethen a senescent seaside town. A youth culture had grown, including coffee bars, pop music and teenage gangs. He had overheard the phrase "as queer as a clockwork orange" in a London pub in 1945 and assumed it was a Cockney expression. In Clockwork Marmalade, an essay published in the Listener in 1972, he said that he had heard the phrase several times since that occasion.

He also explained the title in response to a question from William Everson on the television programme Camera Three in 1972, "Well, the title has a very different meaning but only to a particular generation of London Cockneys. It's a phrase which I heard many years ago and so fell in love with, I wanted to use it, the title of the book.

But the phrase itself I did not make up. The phrase "as queer as a clockwork orange" is good old East London slang and it didn't seem to me necessary to explain it. Now, obviously, I have to give it an extra meaning. I've implied an extra dimension. I've implied the junction of the organic, the lively, the sweet — in other words, life, the orange — and the mechanical, the cold, the disciplined.

I've brought them together in this kind of oxymoronthis sour-sweet word. His second explanation was that it was a pun on the Malay word orang, meaning "man.