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The progress of the electronic industry in the 1950

Making boats and shipping related industries were the first to develop. More heavy industries developed by European companies. In the early 20th century, Chinese merchants established factories in Hong Kong, stimulating such industries as textile and the manufacturing of rubber shoes and torches.

By the time of Japanese occupation, local industries had already made much progress. Industrial production was almost halted during the occupation but revived quickly after the War. In the s, Hong Kong was the export centre of manufactured products in East Asia.

In the s, labour-intensive production processes were relocated to the north. Small and medium sized enterprises moved the whole factory to China; some of the larger and more energetic companies engaged in retail trade and brand development.

Trends in the Semiconductor Industry

This trend has continued into the s. As early asthe government had recorded local manufacturing and production activities. These were mainly related to shipping such as the making of junks, rope and machine parts.

In addition, food processing was also important including refined sugar, preserved ginger, preserved fruits and lard for sale overseas and on the mainland. In the early s, Chinese manufacturers started to use machinery for production; the earliest machine-produced goods included cotton vests, socks, rattan furniture and paper for printing.

More factories were founded when Chinese capitalists arrived in the s and 30s from Southeast Asia, Shanghai and Guangzhou, introducing modern management into their industrial enterprises. Imperial Preference began in Hong Kong enjoyed tax privileged tax for products imported into the British Empire and its territories. This had boosted cotton fabrics and the manufacture of rubber shoes, the progress of the electronic industry in the 1950 and batteries.

On the eve of the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong, there were 1, registered factories and the industrial workforce was over 90, However, during the Japanese occupation that followed, many of the factories were either sequestered by the Japanese army or destroyed. Many factory owners fled and industrial production came to a virtual standstill. Restoring Industries After the War The Second World War had a devastating effect on the economy and industrial bases in Europe and America, and when peace came, local demands for everyday consumption goods were mainly met by imported goods.

The demand among less developed countries in Asia for industrial products grew rapidly, but they could not be supplied by Europe and America which were also suffered from serious destruction in factory and transportation facilities. Driven by the great demands in the export markets, Hong Kong seized the opportunity and resumed production very quickly.

Many factory owners returned to Hong Kong after the war to restart production, and despite the shortage of materials in the early days, in a few years, its manufacturing industries were already moving ahead.

From the registered factories inemploying 51, workers, the numbers grew to 1, factories inand 81, workers. The scale and type of industries resumed to prewar condition. The civil war in the mainland from and the change of government in led to an exodus of migrants into Hong Kong.

Industrialization in Post-war Hong Kong

The majority of postwar migrants came from Guangdong province where cities like Guangzhou and Shantou had had a good base of industry. Among these immigrants were experienced industrialists, and after arriving in Hong Kong, some of those who had been employees switched to start their own small-scale factories. Many of the immigrants, however, were unskilled labourers, whose one hope in reaching Hong Kong was to find work and survival, regardless of how poor the factory conditions or how long the working hours.

Under these circumstances, people turned to manufacturing as an alternative economic opportunity. Among them were those engaged in the re-export trade who were knowledgeable about markets that supplied raw materials and markets that demanded consumer products.

The Rise of New Industries Between the s And s The types of industries after the war differed significantly from before. With the progress of technology and changes in lifestyle, the production of rubber products, torches and patent medicines which had dominated before the war gradually declined, and industries such as textiles, garments, plastics, watches and electronics took their places as pillars of the manufacturing sector.

Some of the Shanghai industrialists established textile factories in Hong Kong, bringing with them new technologies in spinning and as a result, weaving, dyeing and finishing as well as garment-making also developed quickly, and an integrated, vertical production line of cotton goods arose. Plastics was a new raw material widely researched during the WWII and after the war, chemical enterprises in Europe and America supplied it to Hong Kong leading to the rise in the production of plastic toys, flowers, articles of everyday use, etc.

When Switzerland and Germany relaxed the export of watch movements in the s, a new line in the assembling of watch parts was born; in addition, the production of watch bands and watch cases took off as a result. In the s, with a good number of American and Japanese companies setting up factories producing semiconductor radios, televisions, communication equipments and compact electronic parts in Hong Kong, the electronics industry blossomed.

From Processing and Assembling To Vertically Integrated Production Hong Kong not only lacked raw materials for industrial development, it also lacked advanced technological knowhow so that its industries constantly remained at the processing and assembling levels. Between the s and s, industrialization took off and more production processes were in place.

Take textiles as an example. Before the war, cotton weaving factories used cotton yarn imported from abroad, simple products like vests and socks were made. Fabrics woven in local factories were produced mainly for export and the local garment industry was still relatively undeveloped. After the war, the structure of the cotton industry became more integrated when a full, vertical line of production covering spinning, knitting and weaving, dyeing and finishing, garment design and making took place in Hong Kong.

Likewise, the production of plastics, metal wares, watches and electronics appeared as technology advanced so sophisticated component parts were made locally.

As a result, enterprises began to integrate upstream and downstream the progress of the electronic industry in the 1950 processes.

  • In particular, automated bonding processes in back-end manufacturing operations were strong focus;
  • We move towards attacking the sources and not the effects;
  • ODM and OBM, on the other hand, requires the Hong Kong operator to set up their own retail networks and maintain the brand status themselves which cannot be done without large financial backing, something that not many medium and small-sized enterprises can afford;
  • Global Financial Crisis in 2008 and New Growth Engines 19Immediately after the establishment of the Lee Myung-bak administration 2008 to 2013 , Korea was faced with the second major shock of the 2008 global financial crisis, which started with the fall in housing prices in the United States and expanded globally with the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers;
  • Pollution is a form of waste, and a symptom of inefficiency in industrial production.

However, for the main raw materials and state of the art technology, Hong Kong was still dependent on imports from overseas. Small factories were located in the ground floor shops of tenement buildings, mingling with ordinary residences. Larger and better capitalised factories bought their own land to build stand alone factory premises that included plants, dormitories, wharfs, offices and retail outlets.

History of Yamanashi’s Mechanical and Electronic Industries

After the war, factories sprang up in large numbers, many of them cottage industries. In the s, some of the factory owners starting up with only several thousand dollars and unable to afford high rent, could only rent residential flats in tenement buildings. Whereas plastics and metal factories requiring larger and heavier machinery were more often located in street shops, factories making garments which required smaller machines were set up on higher floors.

Some small operators built very simple factories in squatter areas. In order to resettle small factories which were affected by demolition, the government built the first industrial resettlement buildings in Cheung Sha Wan in Since then, many more factory buildings were constructed close to resettlement areas and rented out cheaply so that small operators could continue their business.

These included 6 or 7 storeyed Type H or Type I factory buildings. The Formation of New Industrial Areas With the rapid increase in population after the war, urban land became more expensive and pressure on land grew. The government began developing new towns in to supply cheaper lots for industries and housing. The new towns were created from large scale reclamation, providing cheap land for large factories to build up their facilities and multi-storeyed buildings for smaller enterprises.

Low cost housing estates were built to make labour in proximity to industries.

Trends in the Semiconductor Industry

New industrial areas were also opened up on the fringes of urban areas on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon. Attracted by low land prices, easy transportation and nearness to cheap labour, different types of industries moved in.

When the industrial estates in Tai Po and Yuen Long were completed in the s and s, many large enterprises were attracted to the New Territories. In the early years after the war, the main markets continued to be Southeast Asia and the British Commonwealth as before. Under the Ottawa Agreement, Hong Kong products were able to enter British territories on preferential tariff.

Southeast Asian countries were the natural export markets of products from Hong Kong partly because of geographical proximity and partly the concentration of Chinese people there which gave Hong Kong Chinese producers a linguistic and cultural edge.

Hong Kong-made shirts, patent medicines and articles for everyday use were widely sold. Toward the late s when markets in Europe and America began to open and Southeast Asian countries adopted a protectionist policy in order to nurture their own industries, Hong Kong producers reached out to markets in the West, relying on trading companies as intermediaries. By the mid s, the United States had become the main destination of Hong Kong products with toys, garments, plastic flowers and wigs heading the list.

In the s, the larger Hong Kong factories collaborated with their American clients as Original Equipment Manufacturer OEM and the volume of export grew exponentially. In the late s, Hong Kong manufacturers moved their production to the Mainland and developed the markets for their products there as well. Factories within the same sector collaborated to form vertical production lines; the upstream producers supplied semi-finished or parts to downstream producers to create a continuous product line.

In the textile sector for instance, spinning mills supplied yarn to weaving mills; weavers employed dyers to dye the fabrics they produced or to do final finishing before they could supply the finished fabric to garments factory for making into clothes. Another example was the plastics industry: PVC factories supplied plastic film to factories that made handbags and swimming articles. Paint factories supplied paint for use in many different kinds of industries such as furniture, toys and electric fans; plastic factories supplied parts for garments, rattan ware and toys; electronics factories supplied parts for toys, watches and clocks and electrical appliances.

In addition, the manufacturers of food, patent medicine and articles for daily use focused on local consumers, building up their own brand names to establish their market niche. Producing for Consumers in Developed Countries During the 20 years after the war, the economy of European countries and America moved toward developing tertiary industries, labour-intensive industries shifted toward Asia leading to the industrialization of developing countries.

In the following decades, the OEM mode of production prevailed, especially in the garments, electronics, plastics and watches. Typically, OEM meant large volume and stable orders, and, local factories were compelled to upgrade the standard of management and production in their factories in order to meet with the higher requirements of consumers in Europe and America.

Dependence on Trading Companies as Intermediaries Before Trading companies were the intermediaries between the local manufactures and clients in Europe and America. In the the progress of the electronic industry in the 1950 and s, most of the local factories were too small to have a separate marketing department; the relative ignorance among factory operators of the commercial environment overseas combined with the language barrier made it inevitable for them to depend on trading companies for orders and sales.

When trading firms received orders from overseas clients, they placed the orders on behalf of the clients with the factories which would produce accordingly. Sometimes manufacturers bought samples of articles, reproduced them and asked trading companies to sell them. Sometimes trading companies bought the goods from the factories and sold them to their clients overseas on their own accounts.

In these cases, the the progress of the electronic industry in the 1950 could be considerable. The former were operated by Chinese merchants and specialized in exporting goods to Southeast Asia; some of them even supplied credit to the manufacturers.

In the s when OEM were prevalent and as direct contact was made between local producers and overseas purchasers, trading companies declined. Hong Kong Factories Relocated to Less Developed Regions In Search Of Preferential Tariff Treatment As early as the s, some of the larger local factories had moved part of their production overseas and became the pioneers in the relocation the progress of the electronic industry in the 1950 industries. Due to preferential tariff, language and cultural reasons, Southeast Asia had long been a major market for Hong Kong products.

When these countries declared independence one by one, they sought to nurture their own industries by restricting the import of Hong Kong goods. To sidestep such barriers, some Hong Kong factory owners moved their factories to these countries, producing and marketing their goods locally. The textile and garment industries which had mainly sold to European and American markets also moved their production to less developed territories such as Macao, Taiwan and even as far away as Cambodia, Burma, south Asia and Nigeria which were not subject to the quota system, and sold their products directly from there.

Hong Kong businessmen preferred to work in former British territories since it was easier for the colonial government and British banks to obtain information about local conditions. In the early s, local industries began to move north in order to enjoy cheaper land and labour, and for language and cultural reasons, Hong Kong capitalists concentrated their operations in the Pearl River Delta, with Shenzhen and Dongguan being the favourite localities.

Between and Hong Kong operators provided raw materials, equipment, technology and management while mainland operators provided land and labour. Finished products were taken back to Hong Kong for packing and export.

The first industries to move to the mainland were labour-intensive ones, such as garments, plastics, watches and electronics.